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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Auditory cortex ; Single units ; Rhesus monkey ; Behavioral state ; Anesthetic state
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Auditory-evoked responses in single neurons from rhesus monkey auditory cortex were measured under four relatively well defined behavioral and physiological conditions: (1) monkey awake and performing a simple auditory reaction time task; (2) monkey awake but not performing a task (State A); (3) monkey in a drowsy or Stage 1 sleep state (State B); and (4) monkey anesthetized with a short-acting nonbarbiturate anesthetic. For most units studied the response evoked by the auditory stimulus was greater in the performance condition than in the nonperformance condition. Similarly, evoked activity was usually greater in State A than in State B. Finally, evoked responses under anesthesia were usually weaker than those obtained in the unanesthetized animal. Some exceptions were noted in each case. Differences in response patterns and in rate versus intensity functions of neurons were also found to be associated with the behavioral and physiological state of the preparation. No significant changes in unit spontaneous activity associated with changes in behavioral or physiological condition were observed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die hier besprochenen Eigenschaften von Trimethoprim (TM) zeigen, daß es für sich allein ein vorzügliches antimikrobielles Mittel ist. Jedoch ist TM mit sehr wenigen Ausnahmen klinisch nur in Verbindung mit einem Sulfonamid, für gewöhnlich Sulfamethoxazol (SMX) zur Verfügung gestellt worden. Wir stellen Faktoren vor, aus denen geschlossen werden kann, daß es falsch war, die Verfügbarkeit von TM so einzuschränken. Der Synergismus zwischen TM und SMX kann in vitro eindeutig nachgewiesen werden, doch gibt es aus klinischen Untersuchungen keine Beweise dafür, daß er bei Harnwegsinfektionen eine wesentliche therapeutische Rolle spielt. Auch kann nicht bewiesen werden, daß die Kombination der beiden Antibiotika die Resistenzentwicklung vermindert. In jüngerer Zeit wurden vorwiegend aus pharmakokinetischen Gründen andere Sulfonamide als SMX als Partner für TM vorgeschlagen. Außer Sulfonamiden können auch andere Verbindungen sinnvolle Partner für TM sein. Wir haben beispielsweise ausgedehnte Untersuchungen an TM + Rifampicin durchgeführt und bei bestimmten klar umrissenen Patientengruppen ausgezeichnete Ergebnisse erzielt. Nur klinische Untersuchungen über diese neuen Kombinationen werden klären, ob sie dem TM/SMX überlegen sind. Es gibt bereits genügend Belege für die Annahme, daß TM allein ebenso wirksam sein wird wie TM/SMX und zugleich zufriedenstellender. Wir machen den Vorschlag, daß weitere umfangreiche klinische Versuche mit TM allein zur Behandlung von akuten Harnwegsinfektionen und zur Prophylaxe durchgeführt werden.
    Notes: Summary The properties of trimethoprim (TM), reviewed here, show it to be an excellent antimicrobial agent in its own right. However, with very few exceptions, TM has been made available clinically only in combination with a sulphonamide, usually sulphamethoxazole (SMX). We present evidence to suggest that the decision so to restrict the availability of TM was mistaken. Synergy between TM and SMX can be shown clearly in vitro, but there is no evidence from clinical trials that it plays a significant therapeutic role in urinary infections. Also, there is no evidence that combining the two antibiotics suppresses the emergence of resistance. Recently, sulphonamides other than SMX have been proposed as partners for TM, mainly on pharmacokinetic grounds. Compounds other than sulphonamides may also be logical partners for TM: we have made extensive studies on TM + rifampicin, for instance, and have obtained excellent results in certain clearly-defined patient groups. Only clinical trials of these new combinations will reveal whether they are superior to TM/SMX. There is already sufficient evidence to suggest that TM alone will be as effective as, and more acceptable than, TM/SMX. We propose that further large-scale clinical trials with TM alone be carried out, both to treat acute urinary infections and in prophylaxis.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Obwohl Rifampicin gegen praktisch sämtliche pathogenen Bakterien wirkt, ergibt sich aus der Tatsache einer Resistenzentwicklung, daß es zur Behandlung von Infektionen nicht allein angewandt werden kann. Wir haben gezeigt, daß dieser Nachteil durch die Kombination mit Trimethoprim ausgeglichen werden kann. Nicht nur wird die Ausbildung einer Resistenz in Gegenwart von Trimethoprim, verhindert, sondern oft ist ein antibakterieller Synergismus festzustellen. Unter Einhaltung gewisser Richtlinien kamen wir zur Empfehlung einer geeigneten Kombination von Rifampicin und Trimethoprim, die zur Zeit bei der Behandlung verschiedener Infektionen erprobt wird. Es gibt keinen Hinweis, daß es durch diese Anwendungsart von Rifampicin vermehrt zum Auftreten resistenter Tuberkelbakterien kommt, dieses Risiko erscheint im Gegenteil äußerst gering.
    Notes: Summary Although rifampicin is active against virtually all pathogenic bacteria, acquisition of resistance means that it cannot be used alone for treating infections. We have shown that, in combination with trimethoprim, this handicap can be overcome. Not only is the emergence of resistance prevented by the presence of trimethoprim, but antibacterial synergy is often observed. By applying certain logical guidelines, we have been able to suggest an appropriate combination of rifampicin and trimethoprim, which is now being tried in the treatment of various injections. There is no evidence that the emergence of resistant tubercle bacilli will be encouraged by the use of rifampicin in this way: on the contrary, this risk seems extremely remote.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Infection 3 (1975), S. 126-126 
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The mass spectra of a series of ortho, meta and para substituted isopropyl benzene derivatives have been determined where the second substituent is —COOH, —C(O)NH2, —C(O)C6H5, —C(Ph)(=NPh) or —CH(Ph)(NHPh). Two bis-isopropylbenzophenones have also been studied. The spectra are characterized by prominent ortho effects which distinguish the ortho derivatives from the meta and para.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Marine biology 36 (1976), S. 359-367 
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract An analysis of ichthyoplankton samples based on relative abundance reveals pronounced inshore/offshore distributional gradients for most Hawaiian fish larvae. Larvae of pelagic bay species are found almost exclusively in semi-enclosed bays and estuaries. Larvae of pelagic neritic species are more or less uniformly distributed with distance from shore. The larvae of reef species with non-pelagic eggs are most abundant close to shore, while those of reef species with pelagic eggs are most abundant offshore. Finally, the larvae of offshore (primarily mesopelagic) species show no clear pattern but frequently occur in high numbers nearshore. Within any group, variation in pattern was often evident; for example, although Hawaiian fishes of both the families Labridae and Mullidae spawn pelagic eggs, larvae of the former had not peaked in abundance 12 km from shore while larvae of the latter had peaked between 0.5 and 2 km. Some larvae which occur offshore are highly specialized morphologically for a pelagic existence (e.g. Chaetodontidae, which is illustrated) while others are little modified (e.g. Labridae). These findings indicate ichthyoplankton surveys in tropical areas must sample offshore areas in addition to the inshore adult habitat to obtain a complete picture.
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