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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Embryotoxicity ; Teratogenicity ; 1,3-Indandion-Derivatives ; No Acylating Effect ; Flat Molecule ; Embryotoxicität ; Teratogenität ; 1,3-Indandion-Derivate ; Keine acylierende Wirkung ; Flaches Molekül
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die embryotoxischen und teratogenen Wirkungen von 1,3-Indandion und 3 Derivaten wurden untersucht. Gravide SWS-Mäuse erhielten eine einzige Dosis i.p. am Tag 9 p.c. Wegen der Wasserunlöslichkeit der Substanzen wurde ein Gemisch aus physiologischer Kochsalzlösung und TWEEN20 (3∶1) als Lösungsmittler verwendet. Das Resultat kann die Hypothese nicht bestätigen, nach der die Ursache der Embryotoxicität und Teratogenität von Thalidomid auf eine acylierende Wirkung des Moleküls zurückzuführen ist. Die Ergebnisse begünstigen vielmehr die Hypothese einer Interkalation der jeweils flachen, purin-ähnlichen Moleküle von Thalidomid und einiger seiner Analogen zwischen Basenpaare der DNS-Doppelhelix.
    Notes: Abstract The embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of 1,3-indandion and of 3 of its derivatives were proved. Pregnant SWS mice were given single i.p. injections on day 9 of gestation. A mixture of physiologic saline and TWEEN20 (3∶1) was used as a solvent. The results refute the hypothesis of the action of thalidomide as an acylating agent responsible for the embryotoxic and teratogenic effect. The results favor instead the hypothesis of an intercalation of the flat purine-like molecule moieties of thalidomide and some of its analogues between base pairs of the DNA double helix.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of toxicology 35 (1976), S. 63-68 
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Embryotoxicity ; Teratogenicity ; Isoglutamine derivatives ; Thalidomide ; Test compound K-2004 ; Biglumide ; Embryotoxicitat ; Teratogenität ; Isoglutamin-Derivate ; Thalidomid ; Testsubstanz K-2004 ; Biglumid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Embryotoxicität und Teratogenität von N-Phthalyl-isoglutamin (2), einem Metaboliten von Thalidomid, und von „K-2004-1c”, 2-(Bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-endo-3-endo-dicarboximido)-glutarsäure-1-amid (4), dem Hauptmetaboliten der Testsubstanz “K-2004” (vorgeschlagene Kurzbezeichnung: Biglumid), einem nicht-teratogenen Abkömmling des Thalidomid, wurden an Mäusen und Ratten untersucht. Während sich 2 als hochgradig teratogen und embryotoxisch erwies, zeigte 4 keine dieser Wirkungen im Dosisbereich von 50 bis 400 mg/kg.
    Notes: Abstract The embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of N-phthalyl isoglutamine (2), a metabolite of thalidomide, and of “K-2004-1c”, 2-(bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-endo-3-endodicarboximido)-glutaric acid 1-amide (4), the main metabolite of the test compound “K-2004” (proposed generic name: biglumide), a nonteratogenic congener of thalidomide, have been investigated in mice and rats. Whereas 2 proved to be highly teratogenic and embryotoxic, 4 showed none of these activities in the dose range from 50 to 400 mg/kg.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Precise energies and intensities of about 450γ-rays of the197Au(n, γ)198Au reaction have been investigated in the energy range from 30 keV to 1 MeV with a bentcrystal spectrometer. Prompt and delayedγ-γ coincidences have been studied with Ge(Li) detectors. A half-life of 124±4 ns has been measured for the state at 312.036 keV, which is found to decay to the ground state through the cascade 97.195–214.841 keV. A new level scheme based on these results has been constructed which contains 160 transitions. Spin and parity assignments have been made for most of the levels.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract σ-hyperonic X-ray lines have been observed in 8 elements and their intensities as well as those of the accompaning kaonic X-ray lines have been determined. The σ-atomic cascade has been found to be similar to those of other exotic atoms. The production of σ− hyperons per stoppedK − has been measured by comparing their X-ray intensities. For the first time the intensity attenuation due to the strong absorptive σN interaction could be measured in four cases, and simple optical model calculations have been performed in order to reproduce the data.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The 5→4 and 4→3 transitions in muonic Pb and Ba, respectively, were measured with an accuracy of ∼10eV. Agreement with theoretical calculations is established. The vacuum polarization is tested to 3×10−3, and vacuum polarization corrections of higher order in (αZ) to 20–30%.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The level structures of the doubly odd nuclei80Br and82Br have been studied by means of the thermal neutron capture reactions79Br(n, γ)80Br and81Br(n, γ)82Br. Captureγ-ray spectra from isotopically separated targets have been measured in the approximate energy intervals 30〈E γ(keV)〈1100 with three bent crystal spectrometers installed at the Grenoble high-flux reactor. Measurements with Ge(Li) detectors covered the energy range 0.1〈E(MeV)〈8. Gamma-gamma coincidences have been taken at the research reactor FRJ-2 (Dido) at the Kernforschungsanlage Jülich. The conversion-electron spectra of80Br and82Br from thermal neutron capture have been measured with the beta-spectrometer at the Grenoble high-flux reactor. Using all these data the level schemes of80Br and82Br are proposed up to 1.5 MeV. Spin assignments for the excited states below 800 keV are proposed. The level schemes are discussed in terms of shell model configurations and, as an alternative description, in terms of the Nilsson model.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The absorption of stoppedπ − in181Ta and209Bi has been investigated by studying prompt and delayedγ-ray spectra. Absolute cross-sections for the yield of isotopes per capturedπ − in (π −, xn) reactions, as well as the relative probability of populating nuclear states of different spins have been measured for the hafnium and lead isotopes, respectively. A spin as high as 20 has been observed in the production of204Pb. The ground-state rotational bands of the hafnium isotopes are excited to spin values up to 16. Neutron multiplicities as large as 15 have been observed for both targets. A neutron multiplicity of ≃8 is most probable for both tantalum and bismuth targets. The strong interaction monopole energy shiftɛ 0 and widthΓ 0 for the 4f level are found to beε 0(181Ta)=540±100eV; ɛ0(209Bi)=1790±150 eV;Γ 0(181Ta)=225±57 eV;Γ 0(209Bi) =1166±70 eV. The quadrupole moments, determined from the hyperfine splitting of the 4f pionic atom level, areQ=3.30±0.06b andQ=}-0.50±0.08b for181Ta and209Bi, respectively.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-8580
    Keywords: Thermocouple ; heat-clearance ; aminopyrine-clearance ; gastric mucosal blood-flow ; vasopressin ; occlusion of the celiac artery ; Postaglandin E1 ; Wärmeleitsonde ; Heat-Clearance ; Aminopyrin-Clearance ; Magenschleimhautdurchblutung ; Vasopressin ; Okklusion der Arteria coeliaca ; Prostaglandin E1
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In der vorliegenden tierexperimentellen Studie wurde die Aussagekraft der Schleimhautdurchblutungsmessung mit der Wärmeleitsonde überprüft. Die Untersuchungen zeigten, daß ein Sog von 600 mm Hg erforderlich ist, um die Durchblutung in der ganzen Tiefe der Schleimhaut zu erfassen. Änderungen der Schleimhautdurchblutung werden in allen Quadranten des Corpus ventriculi gleichmäßig gemessen. Die Durchblutungsmessung eines umschriebenen Schleimhautareals ist somit für den gesamten Corpusbereich des Magens repräsentativ. Vasopressin führte zum signifikanten Abfall der mit Heat-Clearance und Aminopyrin-Clearance gemessenen Schleimhautdurchblutung des Magens. Da Vasopressin allein die Durchblutung der Magenschleimhaut, nicht aber die der Submukosa, Muskularis und Serosa reduziert, kann man vermuten, daß mit der Wärmeleitsonde selektiv Durchblutungsänderungen der Schleimhaut gemessen werden. Die Okklusion der Arteria coeliaca um 25 % beeinflußt nach Pentagastrinstimulation weder Schleimhautdurchblutung noch Sekretion des Magens. Nach 50 %iger Einengung der Arteria coeliaca zeigt sich unter Pentagastrin ein signifikanter Abfall der Schleimhautdurchblutung des Magens, während die Sekretion nicht beeinträchtigt wird. Prostaglandin E1 führt bei einer Dosis von 2 µg/kg Körpergewicht zu signifikantem Anstieg von arterieller Durchblutung, Schleimhautdurchblutung und Säuresekretion. Nach Applikation von 4 µg Prostaglandin E1 kommt es dagegen zu signifikantem Abfall der Schleimhautdurchblutung und Sekretion, während unter 8 µg Prostaglandin E1 keine signifikanten Änderungen von Durchblutung oder Sekretion beobachtet werden. Aufgrund dieser Untersuchungsergebnisse scheint Prostaglandin E1 die Sekretion des Magens über primäre Änderungen der Durchblutung zu steuern.
    Notes: Summary The study has been carried out to ensure the positive evidence of the measurement of the gastric mucosal blood-flow with the aid of the thermocouple (heat-clearance technique). The experiments have shown that the suction pressure of 600 mm mercury column which was used to fix the Thermocouple to the mucosa was indispensable in order to assess the blood-flow in the entire depth of the mucosa. Changes in the mucosal blood-flow are measured at the same rate in all quadrants of the gastric corpus. The measuring of the blood-flow of a well circumscribed area of the mucosa is therefore representative for the entire corpus. Vasopressin led to a significant reduction of the gastric mucosal blood-flow measured with heat-clearance as well aminopyrine-clearance. There was a linear correlation between the results of both methods. Vasopressin selectively reduces the blood-flow of the gastric mucosa but not of the submucosa, the muscular layer and the serosa. Therefore it seems to be probable that changes in mucosal blood-flow selectively can be measured with the aid of the thermocouple. After previous stimulation with pentagastrin neither mucosal blood-flow nor acid secretion of the stomach were influenced by the occlusion of the celiac artery by 25 %. The occlusion of the celiac artery by 50 % reduced significantly the pentagastrin-stimulated gastric mucosal blood-flow whereas the acid secretion was not influenced. Prostaglandin E1 at a dose rate of 2 µg/kg-h increased significantly arterial and mucosal blood-flow as well as acid secretion of the stomach. In comparison PGE1 administered at a dose rate of 4 µg/kg-h reduced significantly gastric mucosal blood-flow and gastric secretion. PGE1 at a dose rate of 8 µg/kg-h did not produce any significant changes in blood-flow and secretion. The results suggested that the changes of gastric secretion observed with PGE1 were the consequence of primary changes in the gastric mucosal bloodflow.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Energies and widths of pionic 3d-2p transitions of30Zn,32Ge, and33As have been measured with a Ge detector. The values of the 2p shifts obtained from the measurementε 2p (Zn)=7.0±1.4keV,ε 2p (Ge)=5.5±0.9keV, andε 2p (As)=4.6±0.9keV show a decreasing behaviour for largeZ, which is caused by an increasings-wave contribution as predicted by theory.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract For the investigation of vibrational states in odd A nuclei we have studied the level structure of239U by the238U (n thermal,γ) reaction. Various complementary measurement techniques as curved-crystal-, anti-Compton-,γ-γ coincidence- and conversion electron spectroscopy have been applied. The resulting data have been used to establish the deexcitation scheme of239U up to ∼1.3 MeV and to make spin assignments. Most of the levels are interpreted in terms of the Nilsson model. The data also indicate the presence of the Nilsson states ¦501↺¦ and ¦750¦. Three members of theΒ-vibrational band built on the ¦631↺¦ state and one member of theΒ-vibration built on the ¦622↑¦ ground state have been identified through transitions with strongE0 admixtures. The octupole vibrational state built on the ¦631↺¦ band is proposed at 815 keV.
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