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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-8580
    Keywords: Corticosteroids (influence on allograft rejection) ; Adrenal thymus (allograft rejection)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary I. The bibliography about corticosteroid influence on immune response is briefly reviewed. Generally, it is admitted that corticosteroids are immunosuppressive when administered in large amounts. Divergent opinions are recalled. II. The aims of the experiments are summarized: A) Investigate on the influence of corticoids (given in just substitutive amounts) on skin allograft rejection. B) Investigate on possible interactions between adrenal cortex and thymus with this test. III. It was observed, that A) Adrenalectomy resulted in a significant delay of allograft rejection. B) This could be suppressed partially by administering aldosterone, corticosterone, and desoxycorticosterone and completely by administering at least two of these hormones. C) Cortisol had shown a minor inhibitory influence. D) There was no obvious difference between adrenalectomized and thymectomized rats and those adrenalectomized only. IV. These observations are replaced in the context of bibliography and their significance is discussed.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 152 (1978), S. 325-329 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Spinal cord (rhesus monkey, cat) ; Paired vessels ; Blood supply of individual spinal segments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the spinal cord of the rhesus monkey and of the cat paired vessels near the central canal are described. These paired vessels, consisting of one artery and one vein, are enveloped by a common glial sheath. In some Virchow-Robin's spaces two arteries and two veins can be observed. The physiological significance of this morphological feature is briefly discussed.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neurochirurgica 31 (1975), S. 153-159 
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Directly under the ependyma, and between the ependymal cells, there are basement membranes which form labyrinths connecting with the perivascular basement membranes of the subependymal vessels. The basement membranes exhibit differences in form, position, and distribution, and they can be distended by fluid absorption into large lacunae. The membranes can be identified as glycoprotein and glylcolipid substances. Electron microscopic studies have shown the differences between the basement membrane labyrinths of the human, the rabbit and the rat. In the human, the labyrinths contain isolated collagen fibrils. Basement membranes generally line all connective tissue spaces and form their interstitial borders. From this point of view, the subependymal basement membrane labyrinths can be seen as interstitial spaces near the ventricles, forming pathways between the ependyma and the subependymal capillaries or postcapillary veins.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The measurement of red cell deformability (flexibility or fluidity) according to the method of filtration strongly depends on the suspension medium, the hematokrit, filtration pressure as well as osmolarity and is hard to differentiate over the influence of red cell aggregation. Therefore, data concerning the flexibility of red cells have to be established under standardized conditions, e.g. suspension medium, such as albumin, stabilized hematokrit, constant osmolarity and pressure.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The capillary viscosimeter (Viscotimer) tested with different Ubbelohde-viscosimeters is suitable for measurements of plasmaviscosity; the limitting factor of the measuring method is the exact adjustment of the temperature. When testing the plate-cone-viscosimeter (Wells-Brookfield Microviscosimeter), we achieved scientifically adequate results only when using shear rates 230, 115 and 46 sec−1. An influence of different thrombocyte-concentrations on the viscosity of whole blood and plasma could not be detected. The flow capacity of whole blood and plasma is distinctly dependent on the temperature.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Whole blood viscosity ; Plasma viscosity ; Coronary risk factors ; Blutviskosität ; Koronare Risikofaktoren ; Plasmaproteine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei 43 Patienten, ausschließlich miteinem Risikofaktor für koronare Herzerkrankungen, konnte für Raucher (n=12), Patienten mit Übergewicht (n=12), Hypertoniker (n=8) und Patienten mit einer Fettstoffwechselstörung (n=11) eine durchschnittlich signifikant erhöhte Plasma- und Vollblut-Viskosität gegenüber einem Normalkollektiv (n=30) gesichert werden. Tratenzwei (n=25) odermehr (n=15) der untersuchten Risikofaktoren zusammen auf, konnte eine entsprechend zunehmende Verschlechterung der Fließeigenschaft des Blutes festgestellt werden. Insgesamt konnte bei 61% der Patienten mit einem Risikofaktor, bei 72% der Patienten mit 2 und bei 92% der Patienten mit 3 Risikofaktoren ein pathologisches Fließverhalten des Blutes gesichert werden. Darüber hinaus konnte in der Gruppe der Raucher gegenüber dem Normalkollektiv für das Fibrinogen, das C3c(β1A-Globulin) und das saure α1-Glykoprotein eine signifikante höhere Konzentration und für das Fibrinogen eine signifikante Korrelation zur Plasma-Viskosität gesichert werden. Bei den Patienten mit Übergewicht war die Konzentration des Fibrinogens, des C3c (β1A-Globulins), des sauren α1-Glykoproteins, des β-Lipoproteins, des IgM und IgG signifikant gegenüber den entsprechenden Konzentrationen des Normalkollektivs erhöht. Das α2-Makroglobulin war dagegen signifikant erniedrigt. Eine signifikante Korrelation zur Plasma-Viskosität konnte nur für das IgG gesichert werden. Bei den Patienten mit einer Fettstoffwechselstörung konnte neben den definitionsgemäßen Konzentrationserhöhungen für das Cholesterin eine größere Korrelation zur Plasma-Viskosität als für die Triglyceride gefunden werden.
    Notes: Summary In otherwise healthy patients with one coronary risk factor such as smokers (n=12), overweight patients (n=12), hypertonic patients (n=8) and patients with hyperlipoproteinemia (n=11), it was possible to ascertain a significantly increased plasma- and whole blood viscosity as compared to a group of normal patients (n=30). When two (n=25) or more (n=15) of the examined risk factors occurred together, a correspondingly increased deterioration of blood flow characteristics could be observed. Altogether, in 61% of the patients with one risk factor, in 72% with two and in 92% with three risk factors pathological characteristics of blood flow could be ascertained. Furthermore, in the group of smokers it was possible to ascertain a significantly higher concentration of fibrinogen, C3c(β1A-globulin) and acid α1-glycoprotein when compared to normal patients, and as well a significant correlation between fibrinogen and plasma viscosity. In overweight patients the concentrations of fibrinogen, C3c(β1A-globulin), α1-glycoprotein, β2-lipoprotein, IgM and IgG were all significantly increased compared to correlating concentrations of the normal patients group, α2-Macroglobulin, however, was significantly lower. A significant correlation to plasma viscosity could only be established for IgG. In patients with hyperlipoproteinemia it was found that the correlation of plasma viscosity to cholesterol was greater than that to triglycerides.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Blutviskosität ; Hyperlipoproteinämie ; Clofibrattherapie ; Blood viscosity ; Hyperlipoproteinemia ; Clofibrate therapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary In patients with primary hyperlipoproteinemia (23 patients type II a and II b, 13 patients type IV), changes in lipoprotein concentrations (lipid fraction), fibrinogen concentrations, in kinematic serum and plasma viscosity (determined by means of a capillary viscosimeter) and changes in relative apparent viscosity at shear rate 46 s−1 and 115 s−1 (determined by means of a plate-cone-viscosimeter) were measured before and after a clofibrate therapy (2 × 1 g/day) lasting for 7 to 9 weeks. Serum and plasma viscosity was lowered significantly in both types II and IV. The apparent viscosity decreased at shear rate 46 s−1 in type IV, whereas it remained unchanged in type II. Moreover, there exists a qualitative correlation between changes in serum viscosity and changes in lipoprotein concentration. Fibrinogen concentration remained unaltered.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Bei Patienten mit primärer Hyperlipoproteinämie (23 Patienten Typ II a und b, 13 Patienten Typ IV) wurden die Veränderungen der Lipoproteinkonzentrationen (Lipidanteile), der Fibrinogenkonzentrationen, der kinematischen Serum- und Plasmaviskosität (im Kapillar-Viskosimeter) sowie der relativen scheinbaren Viskosität (Platte-Kegel-Viskosimeter) bei Schergrad 46 s−1 und 115 s−1 vor und nach einer 7- bis 9wöchigen Clofibrattherapie (2 × 1 g/die) gemessen. Art und Ausmaß der Lipoproteinveränderungen entsprachen den Erwartungen. Die Serum- und Plasmaviskosität wurde bei beiden Typen signifikant gesenkt. Eine signifikante Minderung der scheinbaren Viskosität konnte bei dem Schergrad 46 s−1 für den Typ IV gesichert werden, wohingegen der Typ II unbeeinflußt blieb. Weiterhin konnte ein enger qualitativer Zusammenhang zwischen den Änderungen der Lipoproteinkonzentrationen und den Änderungen der Serumviskosität gezeigt werden. Veränderungen der Fibrinogenkonzentration waren nicht zu sichern.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Hyperlipoproteinemia ; Blood viscosity ; Red cell deformability ; Hyperlipoproteinämie ; Blutviskosität ; Erythrozytenflexibilität
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei Patienten mit einer primären Hyperlipoproteinämie (Typ IIa, IV, IIb) wurde mit einem Ubbelohde-Kapillarviskosimeter, mit einem Wells-Brookfield-Platte-Kegel-Viskosimeter und einem Nuklepore-Filtrationsgerät die Serum- und Plasmaviskosität, scheinbare und relative scheinbare Blutviskosität sowie die Erythrozytenflexibilität bestimmt. Alle Meßgrößen unterschieden sich signifikant von denen eines normolipidämischen Kontroll-Kollektivs: Die Viskositätswerte waren beim Typ IIb am stärksten, beim Typ IIa am schwächsten erhöht, während die Erythrozytenflexibilität unabhängig vom Typ vermindert war.
    Notes: Summary In patients with primary hyperlipoproteinemia (types IIa, IV, IIb) we determined by means of a Wells-Brookfield plateconeviscometer and an Ubbelohde capillary-viscometer the serum-, plasma-, apparent and relative apparent blood viscosity as well as the red cell deformability with a filtration technique. All parameters were found to be significantly changed in comparison to those of a normolipidemic control-group: The viscosity values of type IIb showed the greatest increase and of type IIa the smallest, while the red cell deformability was reduced in all types to the same degree.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Cat kidney ; Lipids ; Cholesterol ; Reabsorption ; Histochemistry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Lipid deposits in the cat kidney are mainly located in the epithelium of the proximal tubuli contorti, particularly in the pars contorta. As the amount of fatty acids in the blood of renal arteries is higher than in renal veins, the lipid inclusions are likely to be formed in the proximal convoluted tubule. Whether fat occurring in the urine has been released from the nephron epithelium and the mode of this release remains obscure. The structural equivalent of lipid extrusion into the tubules has not been observed. Components of the tubular lipids include triglycerides, phosphoglycerides and cholesterol. The results of the digitonin-cholesterol reaction favour the assumption that cholesterol is eliminated in the glomeruli and pinocytotically reabsorbed by the brush border cells, this process possibly serving recycling of this compound. The dilated basal labyrinth and intercellular space contain perpendicularly oriented lipid accumulations that reach the basal lamina. The ultrastructure of the lipid storing cells of pars contorta reacting positively for phosphoglyceride and cholesterol is characterised mainly by bodies with marginal plates. As far as can be judged from their morphology, these bodies are interpreted as large peroxisomes. A special feature of the pars recta are dumbbell shaped bodies and elongated or cup-like mitochondria concentrically surrounding cytoplasmic areas, as well as a well-developed smooth ER. In what way the organelles of the brush border cells are involved in catabolic and anabolic processes as far as renal lipid metabolism is concerned remains to be answered.
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