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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Protein binding ; cutaneous hepatic porphyria ; ultrafiltration ; salicylates
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary (1) Plasma protein binding of salicylate was studied in 14 patients with cutaneous hepatic porphyria (CHP) and 11 normal subjects using ultrafiltration with centrifugation (membrane cones) and continuous ultrafiltration. (2) Albumin and haemoglobin levels were significantly reduced in patients with CHP, and salicylate binding by ultrafiltration/centrifugation was 65% compared with 84% in normal subjects. (3) Plasma porphyrin levels were raised, but did not correlate with salicylate binding, and protoporphyrin or uroporphyrin added to plasma did not alter the amount of drug bound. (4) Palmitate added to plasma reduced salicylate binding by 9 to 20% but a crossover of patient and normal plasma proteins and ultrafiltrates confirmed that no other ultrafiltrable metabolites present in patient plasma appeared to cause decreased binding. (5) Scatchard plots obtained by continuous ultrafiltration for normal and patient plasma showed a reduction in the number of primary and secondary binding sites and an increase in the intrinsic association constants for both these sites. (6) It was concluded that the decreased salicylate binding in CHP was due to a reduced albumin concentration and altered salicylate albumin interaction.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Drug-protein binding ; hepatic disease ; salicylate ; sulphadiazine ; phenylbutazone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The binding of 3 drugs to serum proteins of patients with chronic hepatic disease has been studied by an ultrafiltration technique, and compared to that of normal subjects. The binding of phenylbutazone was reduced in all patients, salicylate in patients with inactive liver disease and sulphadiazine in patients whose disease was active. Analysis of binding data showed a real reduction in the capacity of albumin to bind the drugs in the majority of patients. Addition of bilirubin to normal plasma caused a reduction in sulphadiazine binding, but had no effect on the binding of salicylate or phenylbutazone. The possible causes of this reduction in binding are discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Hippocampus ; X-Irradiation ; Granular cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A study presenting findings of focal hippocampal x-irradiation in early infancy and late behavior at two ages was carried out using Long-Evans hooded rats (Rattus norvegicus). Animals from eleven litters received 150-R irradiation treatments for 5 or 15 consecutive days and were then tested in an open field situation and in a two-way active avoidance apparatus. The results indicated that the behavioral deficits paralleled those seen in animals with classical hippocampal lesions. The results were offered in support of a response suppression model for hippocampal functioning.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Eye Movement ; Optokinetic Nystagmus ; Vestibular Nystagmus ; Object Nystagmus ; Field Nystagmus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To determine how vestibular and optokinetic eye movement signals share the central oculomotor neural organization, optokinetic afternystagmus was superposed on vestibular nystagmus in the monkey. To a first approximation there was algebraic additivity in the velocity domain. This result suggests that vestibular and optokinetic eye movements are integrated at a level of neural organization above the ocular motoneurons, at a level in which neural signals are coded in terms of eye movement velocity rather than eye position.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Excised but otherwise intact cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) stigmas release a watersoluble substance which selectively inhibits germination of self-but not cross-pollen. The inhibitory effect on self-pollen germination is dependent on both the concentration of stigma extract and on the time of addition. Low concentrations of stigma extract inhibit when present from the start (zero time additions) of pollen imbibition, whereas high concentrations do not. High concentrations inhibit when stigma extracts are added 1 to 2 minutes after the start of pollen imbibition, but germination is increasingly less inhibited when additions are delayed 2 to 4 minutes. Similar inhibition kinetics are also observed with delayed additions of cordycepin and cycloheximide. Stigma extracts selectively inhibit leucine-14C incorporation into proteins of self-pollen. We conclude that germination does not require protein synthesis whereas the regulation of self-incompatibility does.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Incompatibility ; Cabbage ; S Alleles ; Dominance ; Brassica
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The expressed activity in pollen and stigma was determined for both S alleles of sixteen S-alíele heterozygous genotypes and for one of the two S alleles of two additional heterozygotes. Activities were measured using pollen tube penetration and seed set data from reciprocal crosses between each S-allele heterozygote and its two corresponding S-allele homozygotes. In pollen the S-allele activities ranged from zero to 100% inhibition of pollen tube penetration and seed set, and in the stigma they ranged from 8 to 100% inhibition. Of the sixty-eight S-allele activities measured, thirty-three (48%) were 90 to 100% inhibition, nine (13%) were 80 to 89% inhibition and one to five were within each ten-unit range below 80% inhibition. In an S-allele heterozygote, each subset of two S alleles had an activity for each allele in both pollen and stigma which was highly repeatable among duplicate pollinations within and among successive years. Each subset of two S alleles had a specific S-allele interaction in the pollen, and the same or another specific interaction in the stigma. In pairings with six other S alleles, allele S 2 had four calculated levels of activity in pollen that ranged from 88 to 94%, and five levels in the stigmas between 15 and 94%. When paired in a heterozygote, alleles S 3 and S 5 had activities ranging between 42 and 59%, representing mutual weakening of S-allele activity. Also, heterozygote S 15 S 3 had pollen activities, respectively, of 25 and 6%, i.e. mutual weakening in the pollen. These results indicate that in heterozygous combination with a series of other S alleles, each S-allele may have activity in pollen and also in stigma that potentially is between zero and 100% inhibition. They further indicate that the defined sexual-organ X S-allele-interaction Types I, II, III and IV are extremes; all intermediate variations including complete weakening of both alleles are possible. Recessiveness is weakening of the activity of but one of the two S alleles. The pollen tube penetrations into the style and seed set were highly correlated.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 54 (1979), S. 249-265 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Brassica ; S alleles ; Incompatibility ; Hybrid ; Crucifer ; Dominance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Procedures are described for efficient selection of: (1) homozygous and heterozygous S-allele genotypes; (2) homozygous inbreds with the strong self- and sib-incompatibility required for effective seed production of single-cross F1 hybrids; (3) heterozygous genotypes with the high self- and sib-incompatibility required for effective seed production of 3- and 4-way hybrids. From reciprocal crosses between two first generation inbred (I1) plants there are three potential results: both crosses are incompatible; one is incompatible and the other compatible; and both are compatible. Incompatibility of both crosses is useful information only when combined with data from other reciprocal crosses. Each compatible cross, depending on whether its reciprocal is incompatible or compatible, dictates alternative reasoning and additional reciprocal crosses for efficiently and simultaneously identifying: (A) the S-allele genotype of all individual I1 plants, and (B) the expressions of dominance or codominance in pollen and stigma (sexual organs) of an S-allele heterozygous genotype. Reciprocal crosses provide the only efficient means of identifying S-allele genotypes and also the sexual-organ x S-allele-interaction types. Fluorescent microscope assay of pollen tube penetration into the style facilitates quantitation within 24–48 hours of incompatibility and compatibility of the reciprocal crosses. A procedure for quantitating the reciprocal difference is described that maximizes informational content of the data about interactions between S alleles in pollen and stigma of the S-allele-heterozygous genotype. Use of the non-inbred Io generation parent as a ‘known’ heterozygous S-allele genotype in crosses with its first generation selfed (I1) progeny usually reduces at least 7 fold the effort required for achieving objectives 1, 2, and 3, compared to the method of making reciprocal crosses only among I1 plants. Identifying the heterozygous and both homozygous S-allele genotypes during the I1 generation facilitates, during subsequent inbred generations, strong selection for or against modifier genes that influence the intensity of self- and sib-incompatibility. Selection for strong self and sib incompatibility can be effective for both homozygous inbreds and also for the S-allele heterozygote, thus facilitating production of single-cross F1 hybrids and also of 3-and 4-way hybrids.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Incompatibility ; Control ; Pollen ; Recognition ; Style
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Recent biochemical studies with Brassica indicate that the pollen grain has a primary role in the control of self incompatibility. Combining this new evidence with that from prior genetic, biochemical, and ultrastructural studies, a working model is hypothesized for the molecular events which occur during self recognition and the subsequent control of pollen germination. Self recognition is postulated to involve the interaction of a presynthesized, genotype-specific recognition molecule (effector) produced by the stigma with a presynthesized receptor molecule produced by and located in or on the pollen grain. The consequence of self recognition is a selective inhibition of pollen protein synthesis within about 2–4 minutes after imbibition. We deduced that protein synthesis is programmed to occur in pollen — unless interrupted as a consequence of self-recognition — and leads to the sequential production of opposing regulators: first a germination inhibitor (G-Inh), then a germination activator (G-Act). These regulators in turn control the activities of presynthesized, and probably sequestered enzymes required for germ tube formation. Sequential appearances of the G-Inh and G-Act occur unless synthesis of the G-Act is blocked as a result of self recognition. Thus, following a self pollination, recognition occurs in sufficient time to block production of the G-Act but not of the G-Inh, and inhibition of germination (incompatibility) results. For a cross pollination, there is no self recognition and production of the G-Act is unimpeded; it then nullifies the effect of the G-Inh and pollen germination (compatibility) results. The model and evidence for its support are discussed in detail.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Colon, colonoscopy ; Barium enema, diagnosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Records of 230 colonoscopies were reviewed to determine the success in viewing the entire colon and the extent of the colon viewed when colonoscopy was incomplete. It was found that colonoscopy was complete to the cecum or ileum in 57% of studies, and that an average 63.8% of the colon was viewed during incomplete studies. Overall, 84.4% of the combined length of all colons examined was successfully viewed. The significant numbers of incomplete colonoscopies suggest that colonoscopy and the barium enema examination must remain complementary for maximum detection of colon lesions.
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