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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cerebral cortexin vitro andin vivo ; Chloride transport ; Primate ; Cortical edema
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. The swelling of intact primate cerebral cortex perfused under isosmotic conditionsin vivo, like swelling of slices of mammalian cerebral cortex incubatedin vitro, is a linear function of the concentration of K+ in the extracellular fluid over the range 20–120 mM. 2. The simultaneous presence of the Cl− ion is required for the development of K+-dependent swelling of cerebral cortex under various experimental conditionsin vivo andin vitro. 3. The maintenance of previously established K+-dependent swelling of cerebral cortex bothin vitro andin vivo requires the relative concentrations of both K+ and Cl− in the extracellular fluid to remain constant. A reduction in the concentration of either ion is associated with an absolute loss of fluid of swelling of cerebral cortex. 4. The content of Cl− in cerebral cortex is a function of the magnitude of K+-dependent swelling even though the concentration of Cl− in the extracellular fluid is maintained constant. 5. The mechanism of swelling in primate cerebral cortex following cerebral circulatory arrest is discussed in the light of the experimental findings, as a model of the type of brain injury encountered in massive clinical stroke.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Eine Methode zur potentiometrischen Titration von Sulfid mit Natriumplumbat(II)lösung an einer sulfidsensitiven Membranelektrode wird beschrieben. Sie eignet sich zur Bestimmung von 10−4% Sulfid in Gegenwart von Cl−, Br−, J−, SCN−, SO3 2−, S2O3 2−
    Notes: Abstract A method is described for the titration of sulphide with sodium plumbate(II) solution using a sulphide-sensitive electrode. The method is suitable for the determination of 10−4% of sulphide in the presence of Cl−, Br−, J−, SCN−, SO3 2−, S2O3 2−.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Keywords: Best. von Zinn ; Blei, Kupfer, Cadmium in Zink, Zinksalzen ; Voltammetrie, inverse ; Hg-Filmelektrode
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Zur Bestimmung von Sn, Pb, Cu, Cd in Zinkmetall und Zinksalzen wird die Anreicherung an einer Quecksilberfilmelektrode auf Glaskohle in salzsaurer Lösung vorgenommen. In der gleichen Lösung werden Cu und Cd durch anodische Ablösung bestimmt. Zur Trennung von Sn und Pb wird die salzsaure Lösung nach dem Anreicherungsschritt mit ammoniakalischer Citratlösung gemischt. In der resultierenden Lösung werden die Auflösungsströme für Sn und Pb gemessen. Die relativen Standardabweichungen betragen 1,3 bis 4,7%.
    Notes: Abstract The enrichment is performed in 0.8 N HCl at a glassy carbon electrode mercury plated in situ. Cu and Cd are determined by anodic stripping in the same solution. In order to separate Sn and Pb the HCl solution is mixed with a highly ammoniacal citrate solution. In the resulting medium Sn and Pb are stripping out of the electrode. Relative standard deviations are in the range of 1.3 to 4.7%.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die inverse Voltammetrie am hängenden Quecksilbertropfen mit pulspolarographischer Aufzeichnung der anodischen Auflösungsströme wird auf ihre Leistungsfähigkeit untersucht. 10−9 M Lösungen von Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn können im Routinebetrieb analysiert werden. In Alkalisalzmatrices sind Direktbestimmungen der Schwermetalle im 10−7 bis 10−8%-Bereich möglich. Die Nachweisgrenze für Cd beträgt 5 · 10−11 Mol/l. Die Empfindlichkeit der Methode wird mit derjenigen verwandter voltammetrischer Verfahren verglichen.
    Notes: Abstract The efficiency of anodic stripping pulse polarography at the H.M.D.E. is tested. In routine work the analysis of 10−9 M solutions of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn offers no difficulty. The determination of the elements in alkali salts in the 10−7 to 10−8% range is possible. The detection limit for Cd was found to be 5×10−11 M. The sensitivity of the method was compared with those of related voltammetric techniques.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: T cells are highly conserved in jawed vertebrates, suggesting an essential role in the immune system. However, T cell–deficient Tcrd –/– mice display surprisingly mild phenotypes. We hypothesized that the lack of T cells in constitutive Tcrd –/– mice is functionally compensated by other lymphocytes taking over genuine T cell functions. To test this, we generated a knock-in model for diphtheria toxin–mediated conditional T cell depletion. In contrast to IFN-–producing T cells, IL-17–producing T cells (T17 cells) recovered inefficiently after depletion, and their niches were filled by expanding Th17 cells and ILC3s. Complementary genetic fate mapping further demonstrated that T17 cells are long-lived and persisting lymphocytes. Investigating the function of T cells, conditional depletion but not constitutive deficiency protected from imiquimod-induced psoriasis. Together, we clarify that fetal thymus-derived T17 cells are nonredundant local effector cells in IL-17–driven skin pathology.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1007
    Electronic ISSN: 1540-9538
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Computations in the mammalian cortex are carried out by glutamatergic and -aminobutyric acid–releasing (GABAergic) neurons forming specialized circuits and areas. Here we asked how these neurons and areas evolved in amniotes. We built a gene expression atlas of the pallium of two reptilian species using large-scale single-cell messenger RNA sequencing. The transcriptomic signature of glutamatergic neurons in reptilian cortex suggests that mammalian neocortical layers are made of new cell types generated by diversification of ancestral gene-regulatory programs. By contrast, the diversity of reptilian cortical GABAergic neurons indicates that the interneuron classes known in mammals already existed in the common ancestor of all amniotes.
    Keywords: Evolution, Molecular Biology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-02-28
    Description: Evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex reflects increased amplification of basal progenitors in the subventricular zone, producing more neurons during fetal corticogenesis. In this work, we analyze the transcriptomes of distinct progenitor subpopulations isolated by a cell polarity-based approach from developing mouse and human neocortex. We identify 56 genes preferentially expressed in human apical and basal radial glia that lack mouse orthologs. Among these, ARHGAP11B has the highest degree of radial glia-specific expression. ARHGAP11B arose from partial duplication of ARHGAP11A (which encodes a Rho guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein) on the human lineage after separation from the chimpanzee lineage. Expression of ARHGAP11B in embryonic mouse neocortex promotes basal progenitor generation and self-renewal and can increase cortical plate area and induce gyrification. Hence, ARHGAP11B may have contributed to evolutionary expansion of human neocortex.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Florio, Marta -- Albert, Mareike -- Taverna, Elena -- Namba, Takashi -- Brandl, Holger -- Lewitus, Eric -- Haffner, Christiane -- Sykes, Alex -- Wong, Fong Kuan -- Peters, Jula -- Guhr, Elaine -- Klemroth, Sylvia -- Prufer, Kay -- Kelso, Janet -- Naumann, Ronald -- Nusslein, Ina -- Dahl, Andreas -- Lachmann, Robert -- Paabo, Svante -- Huttner, Wieland B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 27;347(6229):1465-70. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa1975. Epub 2015 Feb 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics (MPI-CBG), Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, D-01307 Dresden, Germany. ; Technische Universitat Dresden, Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 105, D-01307 Dresden, Germany. ; Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (MPI-EVA), Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Technische Universitat Dresden, Universitatsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Klinik und Poliklinik fur Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Fetscherstrasse 74, D-01307 Dresden, Germany. ; Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics (MPI-CBG), Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, D-01307 Dresden, Germany. huttner@mpi-cbg.de.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25721503" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Separation ; GTPase-Activating Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*physiology ; Gene Duplication ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Humans ; Lateral Ventricles/cytology ; Mice ; Neocortex/cytology/*embryology/metabolism ; Neural Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Neurogenesis/*genetics ; Neuroglia/cytology/metabolism ; Neurons/cytology/metabolism ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Transcriptome
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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