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  • 2005-2009  (1)
  • 1970-1974  (2)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase-3 have been identified as susceptibility genes for schizophrenia and altered protein and mRNA levels have been detected in the brains of schizophrenics post-mortem. Recently, we reported that haloperidol, clozapine and risperidone alter glycogen synthase kinase-3 and β-catenin protein expression and glycogen synthase kinase-3 phosphorylation levels in the rat prefrontal cortex and striatum. In the current study, β-catenin, adenomatous polyposis coli, Wnt1, dishevelled and glycogen synthase kinase-3 were examined in the ventral midbrain and hippocampus using western blotting. In addition, β-catenin and GSK-3 were examined in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area using confocal and fluorescence microscopy. The results indicate that repeated antipsychotic administration results in significant elevations in glycogen synthase kinase-3, β-catenin and dishevelled-3 protein levels in the ventral midbrain and hippocampus. Raclopride causes similar changes in β-catenin and GSK-3 in the ventral midbrain, suggesting that D2 dopamine receptor antagonism mediated the changes observed following antipsychotic administration. In contrast, amphetamine, a drug capable of inducing psychotic episodes, had the opposite effect on β-catenin and GSK-3 in the ventral midbrain. Collectively, the results suggest that antipsychotics may exert their beneficial effects through modifications to proteins that are associated with the canonical Wnt pathway.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1.Calliactis polypus in Hawaii and C. tricolor in Puerto Rico both respond to mechanical stimuli that resemble the activities of their commensal pagurids, e.g., stroking, tapping, scratching and squeezing of the column, by opening up, relaxing and loosening their pedal discs (Figs. 3–6). 2.C. polypus, which does not transfer to crabs unaided, could only be detached by lifting the pedal disc after the anemone had been subjected for some time to tactile stimuli very similar to those applied by Dardanus gemmatus (Figs. 1 and 2). C. tricolor, which can transfer to shells unaided by crabs and which lives on several hosts, can be relaxed and detached quickly by various substitutes, the most effective being gentle brushing around the base (Figs. 7–10). 3.Both species of Calliactis, when detached by such substitutes, were expanded and relaxed and retraction responses were inhibited. In this state tentacles and pedal discs adhered strongly to any solid surface and the anemones settled on these quickly (Figs. 11–14). 4.Electrical stimuli at low frequencies (maximum 1 pulse per sec at 27–29° C) cause extension and relaxation of the column. Usually after 40–50 stimuli release of the pedal disc occurs. The effective pulse frequencies are close to the frequency of the tactile contacts of crabs or substitutes which evoke the relaxation and release of C. polypus and C. tricolor (Figs. 15–18). 5.It is suggested that species with less restricted host relationships, in this case C. tricolor, are less restricted also in the kinds of stimuli that cause detachment. The role of sensory adaptation and the requirements of the neural organization controlling these activities are discussed. The excitation process is frequency-dependent and the response pattern is triggered at an appropriate level by summation. the detachment of C. polypus and C. tricolor is compared with the very slow detachment of C. parasitica in response to shells, and with the very rapid detachment of the swimming sea anemones, Stomphia and Actinostola. All of these anemones use different mechanisms to achieve the same end.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular evolution 3 (1974), S. 293-299 
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Phylogeny ; Escherichia coli ; Aerobacter aerogenes ; 16 S Ribosomal RNA ; Oligomer Catalog
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The catalog of oligonucleotides produced by T1 ribonuclease digestion ofAerobacter aerogenes 16 S ribosomal RNA has been determined and compared to that characterizingEscherichia coli. It is concluded that the two 16 SrRNAs are approximately 98% similar, making the organisms very closely related.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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