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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Bronchodilators ; methacholine ; healthy human subjects ; SDZ MKS 492 ; specific airway conductance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary An approximately steady-state reduction of specific airway conductance was induced in healthy human subjects by means of an individualized inhaled methacholine loading dose followed by a maintenance dose regime. Tested against this background bronchoconstriction, the xanthine analogue SDZ MKS 492, when administered as a single oral dose of 40 mg, showed a significant bronchodilator action, which lasted for up to 5.5 h. Bronchodilatation was not seen after administration of 10 or 20 mg doses. SDZ MKS 492 inhaled as a dry powder had a bronchodilator action that was small, most evident with the 12 mg dose and transient. The peak relief of imposed bronchoconstriction was 29% and the apparent half-time of removal of SDZ MKS 492 from its site of action was 5–6 min. Inhaled SDZ 492 had a bitter taste that was not masked by inclusion of menthol and aspartame in the formulation. The bronchodilatation seen in laboratory animals can also be produced by SDZ MKS 492 in man when administered orally or by inhalation. Its magnitude correlates better with the plasma concentration of parent drug than with that of either of the identified metabolites. Dispositional processes in the lung abbreviate its action after administration by inhalation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2214
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background  This paper recounts the difficulties experienced when the authors sought access to children in hospital for social research interviews. These were part of a 2-year study, funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, aiming to explore the numbers, circumstances and experiences of children who spend prolonged periods in health care settings.Methods  As the intention was to carry out ‘guided conversations’ with 24 young people in various different NHS locations, permission to do so was sought from a multi-site research ethics committee (MREC), and from several local research ethics committees (LRECs). Agreement was then necessary from NHS trusts, which were asked to nominate a liaison person to help identify and recruit children to the study. Consent was also required from individual parents and children. A series of unexpected delays encountered during this process are discussed in some detail. Eventually a sample of 15 children was achieved.Discussion  The second part of the paper locates this experience within a wider context, noting that similar difficulties gaining access to children in NHS settings have recently been reported by other social researchers. Several possible reasons for this trend are identified and discussed. These relate to the role of MRECs and LRECs in screening social research proposals, recently implemented legislation about data protection, heightened concerns within the NHS about confidentiality and consent, and increasing awareness of the risk of child abuse in health care settings.Conclusion  Finally, some suggestions for facilitating the access process are discussed. They include the sensitive and appropriate application of research governance frameworks to social research – including studies within health care settings. Ethical considerations and adequate protection of children are vital but, the authors argue, wherever possible children themselves should be encouraged to decide whether or not to participate in research. In addition, unnecessarily complex access procedures may adversely affect research outcomes.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Keywords: Polybioides ; Ropalidiini ; Polistinae ; caste differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Queens ofPolybioides tabidus differ from workers of the same species in the presence of very much longer bristles on the eyes and head and in the size of some morphological characters. The presence/absence of eye bristles in queens/workers of P. tabidus is the first qualitative morphological caste difference reported in the Polistinae.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 227 (1970), S. 83-84 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We examined eight populations, three pathotype A (including one from the type locality near Rostock, East Germany), two pathotype B and three pathotype E, and we confirmed Guile's and Webley's findings. We also found that pathotype B or E males raised on the susceptible potato variety Arran Banner ...
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Applied crystallography online 23 (1990), S. 378-386 
    ISSN: 1600-5767
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The accuracy of the Chebyshev expansion coefficients used for the calculation of attenuation correction factors for cylindrical samples has been improved. An increased order of expansion allows the method to be useful over a greater range of attenuation. It is shown that many of these coefficients are exactly zero, others are rational numbers, and others are rational fractions of π−1 The assumptions of Sears [J. Appl. Cryst. (1984), 17, 226–230] in his asymptotic expression of the attenuation correction factor are also examined.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Chicken rolls were manufactured using ground dark fowl meat or mechanically deboned poultry meat as a binding substrate, sodium caseinate or soya isolate and a meat block that was mechanically tenderized or chunked. Effects of these treatments on yield, chemical composition, sensory and texture profile attributes were evaluated in this study. Inclusion of soya isolate increased the cook yield and improved color over sodium caseinate (P 〈 0.05). Likewise, rolls containing ground-dark fowl meat were lighter in color than those made with mechanically deboned poultry meat. Rolls made with mechanically deboned poultry meat had greater chewiness, while those made with sodium caseinate had greater cohesiveness. Texture profile analysis indicated that mechanical tenderization was the predominant factor in producing a softer and more springy chicken roll. Sensory evaluation revealed that mechanical tenderization decreased chewiness as compared to cubing (P 〈 0.05).
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Restructured beef steaks were processed from USDA Select chuck muscles without the use of additives, and three processing variables were utilized at three different levels: -2, 0, +2C for mixing temperature, 12, 18, 24 min for mixing time and 1, 2, 3 passes through a kidney plate for particle size reduction. A sensory panel composed of 149 untrained consumer panelists evaluated the 27 treatment combinations for five sensory attributes. Instrumental determinations were also made. Increasing mixing temperature and decreasing particle size significantly decreased sensory tenderness, flavor and overall acceptance and increased instrumental hardness and springiness of the restructured beef steaks. Increasing mixing time had a significant effect on sensory appearance and on instrumental cohesiveness and gumminess. The means for sensory scores were used for a response surface analysis (RSM) to optimize the three processing variables. Significant models were found for tenderness (P〈0.05), overall acceptance (P〈0.05) and flavor (P〈0.15). Using a sensory score of 6.00 (like slightly) as an acceptable score, optima for the processing variables were determined. To obtain an acceptable product, the meat should be ground by two passes through the kidney plate then mixed at a maximum temperature of 0.67C for 12 min.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 58 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Polymerization of beef actomyosin was induced by addition of transglutaminase. The relative intensity analyzed by densitometry after sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that bands containing the polymerized myosin increased from 10.1 ± 2.2% to 20.7 ± 3.5% while the myosin monomer band decreased from 20.9 ± 3.4% to 13.0 ± 2.7% as the reaction time extended from 10 to 120 min at 35°C. Polymerization of actomyosin induced by transglutaminase resulted in gelation of the actomyosin that was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 55 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Transversal ultra-structure and firmness were examined on cooked spaghetti-shaped pasta prepared from durum semolina with 0% (control), 10%, 20%, and 30% Alaskan pollock surimi. The ultra-structure of the pasta exhibited two differences between inner and outer gross structures of the extruded product. In the inner portion, control and surimi-added pasta were not different. In the outer portion, surimi gel was observed as a network with small cavities uniformly distributed throughout the matrix formed by the gluten and/or gelatinized starch of durum semolina. Cooked firmness of the pasta decreased with addition of surimi.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 38 (1973), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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