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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Uredosporen von Puccinia graminis wurden auf einem flüssigen Medium durch Zusatz von Cumarin zur Keimung gebracht. Wir verfolgten die Veränderungen der Enzymaktivitäten von Glucose-6-phosphat-Dehydrogenase, Phosphogluconat-Dehydrogenase und von Glucose-6-phosphat-Isomerase in Abhängigkeit von der Inkubationszeit. Im Gegensatz zu den Enzymen keimender Sporen saprophytischer Pilze nehmen die Gesamtaktivitäten aller drei Enzyme im Anschluß an einen kurzen Anstieg innerhalb der ersten Stunde bzw. der ersten 2 Std wieder ab. Nach 12 Std findet man für Phosphogluconat-Dehydrogenase und für Glucose-6-phosphat-Isomerase niedrigere Werte als vor Beginn der Inkubation. Die spezifischen Aktivitäten von Phosphogluconat-Dehydrogenase und Glucose-6-phosphat-Isomerase bleiben nahezu konstant. Dagegen nimmt die spezifische Aktivität von Glucose-6-phosphat-Dehydrogenase zu. Die in den Uredosporen von Puccinia graminis gefundenen spezifischen Enzymaktivitäten sind wesentlich höher als die in den Sporen saprophytischer Pilze.
    Notes: Summary Uredospores of Puccinia graminis were germinated on a liquid medium containing coumarin. We followed changes in enzyme activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase as a function of time of incubation. Contrary to the enzymes in germinating spores of saprophytic fungi the total activities of all three enzymes declined clearly after a short lasting rise during the first or the first 2 h of incubation. 12 h after the beginning of the experiment the total activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase had declined even below the level of not incubated spores. The specific acitivities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase stayed nearly constant during the time of the experiment, whereas the specific activity of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase increased. The specific activities of these enzymes found in uredospores of Puccinia graminis are considerably higher compared to those found in saprophytic fungi.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Induction of cellular DNA replication during the lytic infection of AGMK cells with SV 40 can be prevented, by interferon. UV-light irradiated SV 40 or viral coat protein has no DNA stimulating activity. These characteristics suggest the stimulation of cellular DNA synthesis to be mediated by the expression of the viral genome, and not by a constituent of the infecting virus.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Experimental Brain Tumor ; Glioma ; Astrocytoma ; Avian Sarcoma Virus ; Nexus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Brain tumors were induced in inbred PD4 hamsters with each of four strains of Avian Sarcoma Virus: CT-559, Bratislava-77, Schmidt-Ruppin, and Bryan. Based on light and electron microscopic observations the neoplastic tissues found in these tumors were identified as: (1) glial, (2) a distinctive large cell, and (3) sarcomatous. The glial neoplasms consisted almost entirely of masses of astrocytes in a subependymal position. The large cell tissue was a striking feature in some of the tumors. Although the cell of origin for this tissue could not be positively identified, certain features suggested that these cells were derived from glia. The cerebral sarcomas occurred as small nodules near the pial surface or occasionally as large intracerebral masses. Replicating virus was not seen in any of the tumors.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Synthesis of 5-amino-4-chloro-3(2H)-pyridazinone-(4,5-14C) by microbiological dephenylation of 5-amino-4-chloro-2-phenyl-3(2H)-pyridazinone-(4,5-14C) (Pyrazon) in soil. Earlier experiments have shown (1,2) that pyrazon (5-amino-4-chloro-2-phenyl-3(2H)-pyridazinone), the active ingredient of the herbicide PYRAMIN®, is dephenylated in soil to form the metabolite 5-amino-4-chloro-3(2H)-pyridazinone (metabolite B). More recent investigations into the decomposition of pyrazon in the soil have shown (4,5) that soils with extreme “degradation-capacity” can be obtained by repeated additions of active ingredient to the soil, while keeping both temperature and humidity at an optimum. Soils conditioned by this method in the laboratory were capable of completely metabolizing up to 5 000 ppm pyrazon within 10–14 days. Obviously strains of micro-organisms are selected in the soil, which use the phenyl-ring of pyrazon as their main carbon source. Dephenylation proceeds with good yield and is therefore suitable for preparation of the metabolite. Since chemical synthesis of the radioactive metabolite is rather difficult and costly, the biochemical degradation of pyrazon-(4,5-14C) was used to obtain the labelled metabolite. Recovery from soil was 53,1 % of the theoretical amount. The metabolite obtained was both chemically and radiochemically pure.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Zellwände und Keimschläuche von Uredosporen des Weizenrostes (Puccinia graminis var. tritici) wurden isoliert, und ihre chemische Zusammensetzung wurde quantitativ untersucht. Als gemeinsame Bausteine enthalten Sporenwände und Keimschlauchwände Proteine, Lipide und die Neutralzucker Galaktose, Glucose und Mannose. Die einzelnen Komponenten liegen in unterschiedlicher Menge vor. Auch qualitativ unterscheiden sich die Sporenwände und die Keimschlauchwände: Melanin ist nur in den Sporenwänden vorhanden, in den Keimschlauchwänden dagegen nicht. Der polymer gebundene Aminozucker der Keimschlauchwände ist N-Acetylglucosamin, das mit großer Wahrscheinlichkeit als Chitin vorliegt. Die Sporenwände enthalten dagegen polymeres Glucosamin (vermutlich Chitosan). Sporenwände sind in 3% iger NaOH löslich. Aus diesem Extrakt läßt sich mit Fehlingscher Lösung ein Galaktoglucomannan fällen, das überwiegend aus Mannose besteht. Aus der entsprechenden Fraktion der Keimschlauchwände, in der ebenfalls Mannose überwiegt, kann mit Fehlingscher Lösung kein “Mannan” gewonnen werden. Der in NaOH unlösliche Satz der Keimschlauchwände ist zum größten Teil aus Glucose und N-Acetylglucosamin aufgebaut. Es gibt keine identischen Polysaccharidfraktionen von Sporen- und Keimschlauchwänden. Sie sind heteropolymer und setzen sich jeweils aus Galaktose, Glucose und Mannose zusammen.
    Notes: Summary Spore walls and germ tube walls from uredospores of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis var. tritici) were isolated and their chemical compositions determined quantitatively. The spore and germ tube walls are commonly composed of proteins, lipids, and the neutral sugars mannose, glucose and galactose. Carbon and nitrogen content, total lipids, composition of bound amino acids, total glucosamine and chitin content, and neutral sugars of spore and germ tube walls were compared. While the carbon content of the germ tube walls is only slightly higher than that of the spore walls, the germ tube walls contain twice as much nitrogen and lipids as the spore walls. The higher nitrogen content of the germ tube walls is due to higher amounts of bound amino acids and hexosamine. The polymeric germ tube wall hexosamine is insoluble in 3% NaOH, while the bulk of the polymeric spore wall hexosamine will go into solution when treated with 3% NaOH. The polymeric amino sugar of the germ tube wall is N-acetylglucosamine, which in all probability is present as chitin. In comparison, spore walls contain polymeric glucosamine (probably chitosan). The predominant neutral sugar of the spore walls is polymeric mannose (∼90%) while the germ tube walls contain polymeric glucose and mannose in nearly equal amounts. Galactose occurs in both wall types as a minor constituent. From spore walls completely dissolved in 3% NaOH we were able to precipitate a galactoglucomannan with fehling's solution. This galactoglucomannan was composed mainly of mannose. The corresponding fraction of the germ tube wall gave no precipitate with Fehling's solution. An alkali insoluble fraction of the germ tube wall consists mainly of glucose and N-acetylglucosamine. There are no identical polysaccharide fractions in spore walls and germ tube walls. They are always heteropolymers. Melanine is found in spore walls but not in germ tube walls.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 14C-Glucose wurde an Uredosporen von Puccinia graminis appliziert, und es wurde die Aufnahme der Glucose durch die Sporen und die Inkorporation des Glucosekohlenstoffs in das Sporenmaterial untersucht. Das Studium der Abhängigkeit der Glucoseaufnahme von der Konzentration im Medium ergab: Bei höheren Glucosekonzentrationen werden größere Glucosemengen aufgenommen. Die bei einer Konzentration von 5×10-2 mol aufgenommene Glucose reicht aus, um den gesamten Kohlenhydratbedarf für die Bildung der Keimschlauchwände zu decken. Die Glucoseaufnahme nimmt im Verlauf der Inkubationszeit zu. Die aufgenommene Glucose wird nur in geringem Umfang veratmet. Sie wird statt dessen bevorzugt zur Synthese von in 40% igem Äthanol unlöslichen Verbindungen verwendet. Weiterhin wurden die Stoffwechselwege verfolgt, auf denen Glucose umgesetzt wird. Wir untersuchten, in welche Verbindungen des Sporenmaterials Glucose-kohlenstoff eingebaut wird. Der größte Teil der löslichen 14C-Aktivität fand sich in der Fraktion der Kohlenhydrate und der freien Aminosäuren. Mannit, Arabit und Glycerin hatten die höchsten spezifischen Aktivitäten. Unter den freien Aminosäuren zeigten Alanin, Tyrosin und Glutaminsäure relativ hohe spezifische 14C-Aktivität. Hieraus kann man folgern, daß Glucose sowohl über den PPC wie über den EMP und TCA-Cyclus umgesetzt wird. Es wurde festgestellt, in welchem Ausmaß die aufgenommene Glucose zur Synthese der Keimschlauchwand verwendet wird. Eine Analyse der Keimschlauchwände ergab: Fast 90% des inkorporierten 14C fand sich in den unlöslichen Verbindungen der Keimschlauchwände. Während der Inkubation gelangte keine 14C-Aktivität in das Material der Sporenwände.
    Notes: Summary Uredospores of Puccinia graminis were incubated in a medium containing 14C-glucose. The uptake of glucose by the spores and the incorporation of glucose carbon into the spore material was investigated. With higher glucose concentrations in the medium larger amounts of glucose were taken up by the spores. At a concentration of 5×10-2 mol the glucose withdrawn from the medium is sufficient to supply all carbohydrate material necessary for the synthesis of germ tube walls. The glucose taken up increased during the incubation time and was respired only to a small extent. It was used predominantly for the synthesis of compounds insoluble in 40% ethanol. Fractionation of the soluble 14C-activity showed that most of it had been incorporated into carbohydrates and free amino acids. Mannitol, arabitol and glycerol had higher specific activities than all other compounds. The amino acids alanine, tyrosine and glutamic acid showed relatively high 14C incorporation. The labelling pattern is in agreement with the view that glucose is metabolized via the pentose phosphate pathway as well as the Embden-Meyerhof pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. However, only 12% of the 14C incorporated could be accounted for by soluble products. An analysis of the germ tube wall revealed that it contained the bulk of the incorporated 14C-activity. Most of the activity was found in the carbohydrate constitutents of the germ tube wall, namely glucose, mannose, galactose and glucosamine. This indicates that the glucose taken up from the medium by the spores is predominantly used for the synthesis of the germ tube wall. The spore wall material did not contain 14C.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0711
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei 30 Frauen wurde das Verhalten des Lipidstoffwechsels unter der Geburt untersucht. Es wurde eine allgemeine Mobilisation des Fettstoffwechsels in nahezu allen Lipidfraktionen gefunden. Als Ausdruck einer gesteigerten Lipolyse war eine erhebliche Aktivierung des freien Glycerins nachweisbar, das wohl zusammen mit den freien Fettsäuren und den Triglyceriden den Energiebedarf des Uterus und der am Geburtsvorgang beteiligten Skeletmuskulatur zu decken hat. Die Zunahme des Cholesterins und der Phosphatide wird mit dem vermehrten Bedarf an Steroidhormonen unter der Geburt und mit der Notwendigkeit rascher Membranpotentialänderungen zur Steuerung der Wehentätigkeit zu erklären versucht.
    Notes: Summary The lipid metabolism of 30 women was examined during the labour. A general mobilisation of fat metabolism was found in nearly all lipid fractions. As sign of an increased lipolysis a considerable activation of the free glycerin was demonstrated. Probably the free glycerin, together with the free fatty acids and the triglycerides, is necessary to cover the energy requirements of the uterus and the sceletal muscle participating in labour. In our opinion the increase of cholesterol and the phospholipids is induced by the augmented demand of steroid hormones during the labour and the necessity of rapid changes of the potential of membranes for the regulation of labour.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Résumé L'injection de sérums provenant de différentes souches de souris, ainsi que de rats, de hamsters et de lapins, respectivement traités au Rivanol, de même que l'injection d'endotoxine bactérienne à des souris de souche C57Bl a pour effet d'augmenter la concentration d'haptoglobine dans le sérum de ces dernières. La fraction purifiée de 7Sγ-globulines sériques humaines réduit cet effet.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1588-2837
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Кинетика и механизм восстановления бромата с помощью Fe(phen) 3 2+ зависит от отношения концентраций реагентов. При условии [Fe(phen) 3 2+ ]≷BrO 3 − ступенью, лимитирующей скорость реакции является диссоциация Fe(phen) 3 2+ ; а при условии [Fe(phen) 3 2+ ]≷BrO 3 − реакция становится автокаталитической. Обсуждается двойственность в поведении Fe(phen) 3 2+ .
    Notes: Abstract The kinetics and mechanism of the reduction of bromate by Fe(phen) 3 2+ depend upon the concentration ratio of the reactants. At [Fe(phen) 3 2+ ]≶[BrO 3 − ] the rate-determining step is the dissociation of Fe(phen) 3 2+ ; at [Fe(phen) 3 2+ ]≪[BrO 3 − ] the reaction is autocatalytic. A duality in the behaviour of Fe(phen) 3 2+ is pointed out.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1520-5118
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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