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  • 1970-1974  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The solvent-induced conformational transition between the two helical forms of poly-L-proline is studied as a model for cooperative order ⇌ order transitions. The chain length dependent equilibrium data in two solvent systems are described by Schwarz's theory, which is based upon the most general formulation of the linear Ising model with nearest neighbor interactions. The parameter σ which describes the difficulty of nucleation of a I (II) residue in an uninterrupted II (I)-helix is 10-5 in both solvent systems. The ratios of the nucleation difficulties of states I and II at the ends of the chains β′ and β″ are very different in the two systems. Nucleation difficulty within the chain is interpreted as being due to unfavorable excess interaction energies at the I-II and II-I junctions, which add up to 7 kcal/mole of nuclei as calculated from the σ value. A similar value is computed from the atomic interactions at the junctions. In contrast to this intrinsic properly of poly-L-proline, the energies of I and II residues at the ends are heavily influenced by interactions of the endgroups with the solvent. The above values of the nucleation parameters are determined by a new least-square fitting procedure which does not necessitate the assumption of the dependence of the equilibrium constant s for propagation upon the external parameters, but yields this function from the experimental transition data. A quantitative explanation of this experimental s function through the binding of solvent is attempted. In the transition region a very small free energy change (about 0.1 kcal/mole), arising from a preferential binding of solvent molecules to one of the conformational states, is sufficient for a complete conversion from one helical form to the other.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The conformational transition between the two helical forms I and II of poly-L-proline serves as an experimental model for the study of the kinetic, behavior of cooperative systems. The slow I ⇌ II conversion after a sudden perturbation of the solvent composition was followed polarimetrically. The dependence of the mean relaxation times on chain length and the degree of conversion was compared with Schwarz's theory. In addition, a description of the entire relaxation curves was possible in three special cases: all-or-nothing, small perturbations of the I ⇌ II equilibrium in long chains, and conversions which start off with molecules completely in one or the other conformational state. The mathematical model on which the theory is based contains only one more adjustable parameter than the equilibrium model, but it adapts to the experimental results surprisingly well. The present kinetic results and equilibrium measurements on this system are described by the same values of those parameters which are common to both models. The found value of the rate constant of the propagation step, i.e. the cis ⇌ trans isomerization of a peptide bond at an existing I-II junction, agrees with the rate of isomerization in N,N-dimethylacetamide reported in the literature. The rate of nucleation is up to 105 times smaller than the rate of propagation.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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