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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of dermatological research 242 (1972), S. 285-292 
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das Auftreten von Rezidiven bei noch existenten oder bereits abgeheilten Dermatitiden ist bei Menschen wie auch bei Versuchstieren eine bekannte Tatsache. Rezidive treten besonders gern nach systemischer Applikation der Allergene auf, wobei die Hautreaktionen gelegentlich mit einem sich generalisierenden Erythem in Erscheinung treten. In dieser Arbeit werden Versuche beschrieben, die eine Identifikation der ursächlich für die „flare and rash phenomena“ bei DNCB-sensibilisierten Meerschweinchen in Frage kommenden Komponenten zum Ziel hatte. Intravenöse Injektionen von 300 mg DNBSO3Na führten in 16 von 18 erwachsenen Meerschweinchen zu lokalen Rezidiven mit einem generalisierten Erythem im Abstand von einer Woche nach der Kontaktsensibilisierung. Beide Erscheinungen bildeten sich innerhalb von 6 Std am stärksten aus. Versuche, diese Reaktionen unter Verwendung von DNP-Aminosäuren oder DNP-Konjugaten mit Meerschweinchenserumprotein auszulösen, verliefen negativ. Dagegen führte die Injektion von knapp 200 mg einer durch Säulenchromatographie auf Sephadex erhaltenen niedermolekularen Fraktion eines DNBSO3Na-Meerschweinchenserumgemisches (Inkubationsdauer: 1 Std bei 37° C) zu typischen „flare and rashphenomena“. Auch die Verwendung von 10 mg K2Cr2O7 führte zu gleichartiger Symptomatik.
    Notes: Summary Both in men and animals flaring-up of existing or already healed dermatitis is rather common. Flare reactions especially seem to occur after systemic administration of allergen. The reactions are sometimes associated with the development of a generalized erythema (rash). In this paper a description is given of the attempts performed to identify the components capable of eliciting flare and rash phenomena in guinea-pigs wich contact hypersensitivity to DNCB. Intravenous injection of 300 mg DNBSO3Na provoked in 16 of 18 adult guinea-pigs flares at one week old contact reaction sites combined with a generalized erythema; both phenomena were maximal after about 6 h. Neither mixtures of DNP-amino acids or DNP-conjugates with guinea-pig serum protein were found capable of producing similar symptoms. On the other hand, injection of less than 200 mg of a low molecular weight fraction (obtained by column chromatography on Sephadey of a mixture of DNBSO3Na and guineapig serum incubated during 1 h at 37° C) did provoke flare and rash phenomena. Ten mg of K2Cr2O7 proved to elicit the particular symptoms as well.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die verschiedenen Formen der Hyperoxalurie sind besprochen, speziell die primären Hyperoxalurien, autosomale, recessiv vererbte, Stoffwechselerkrankungen (Typus I und II). Die Enzymabläufe werden dargestellt ebenso wie die enzymatischen Defekte dieser Erkrankungen. Solange die Nierenfunktion ungestört ist, scheidet der Kranke als Folge dieser metabolischen Störung sehr große Mengen von Oxalat und andere Metaboliten aus. Die excessive Exkretion von Oxalat schädigt die Niere durch Nierensteinentwicklung, rezidivierenden Infektionen des Tractus uropoieticus und Einlagerung von Mikrokristallen in den Nieren. Bei gestörter Nierenfunktion erhöht sich der Plasmagehalt des Oxalates infolge verminderter Ausscheidung. Während der Sektion werden Oxalatablagerungen diffus im Körper beobachtet. Diese Kranken starben früher an den Folgen ihrer Niereninsuffizienz. Die moderne Hämodialysebehandlung hat zur Folge, daß Plasmaoxalat sich noch mehr erhöht und diffus in die Gewebe abgesetzt wird. Speziell die Ablagerung in Herzmuskelgewebe, Reizleitungssystem und Gefäße (Arterien) wird dadurch zur vornehmsten Todesursache. Die Krankengeschichten von zwei Patienten werden besprochen. Wegen technischen Schwierigkeiten war es nicht möglich, den genauen Enzymdefekt zu charakterisieren. Wir meinen aufgrund des klinischen Bildes, daß unsere Kranken höchstwahrscheinlich an primärer Hyperoxalurie vom Typus I erkrankt waren. Erstmalig war der mikroskopisch sichtbare Nachweis von Calciumoxalat in der Haut, die auch äußerlich Kristallabsetzungen zeigte. Die Art dieser Kristalle wurde histochemisch nachgewiesen. Beide Kranken zeigten weitgehende Verschlimmerung der Oxalatablagerungen im Körper während der Hämodialysebehandlung. Möglicherweise werden in Zukunft mehr Kranke mit Hautoxalose beobachtet werden, da bei der modernen Hämodialyse zu wenig Oxalate abgeführt werden.
    Notes: Summary The different forms of hyperoxaluria have been discussed, especially the primary hyperoxalurias, autosomal recessive inborn errors of metabolism (type I and II). The enzymatic pathways are explained and also the enzymatic deficiencies in these diseases. As long as the renal function is good the patient excretes in the urine excessive quantities of oxalate and other metabolites related to these metabolic errors. The excessive oxalate excretion damages the kidney by the development of renal calculi, recurrent urinary tract infections and by microcrystalline deposits in the kidney itself. After impairment of the renal functions the plasma oxalate level increases and the renal output diminishes. At autopsy oxalate deposits are observed throughout the body. Before treatment by dialysis these patients usually died of renal failure. Now they are being saved from that complication, but the calcium oxalate is insufficiently removed during dialysis, which causes the oxalate pool to rise even more, resulting in extra diffuse deposition of oxalate. The causes of death now seem to be especially the deposition in the heart muscle, its conducting system, and the blood vessels (arteries). The case histories of two patients are given. Although the enzyme defect was not determined, our clinical data suggest that both are suffering from Pr.H. type I. A new finding was the demonstration of calcium oxalate, already macroscopically visible, in the skin. Histochemically the nature of these crystals has been demonstrated. Serious deposition of calcium oxalate took place in both patients during treatment with haemodialysis. Perhaps in near future more of these patients with skin oxalosis will be seen, caused by this modern way of treatment.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 83 (1970), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY.— The guinea-pig was used as a model for the analysis of flare and rash reactions observed after intravenous injections of DNBSO3 Na in animals with a contact allergy to dinitrochlorbenzene. Histological and pharmacological studies could not confirm the mechanism of an Arthus type of reaction.It is suggested that in addition to allergic mechanisms non-specific and non-allergic phenomena may also play a role in provoking the clinical symptoms of flare and rash in hypersensitive animals.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Documenta ophthalmologica 37 (1974), S. 245-259 
    ISSN: 1573-2622
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In a previous publication [1] we analyzed the stability of rare gas halides on the basis of exchange perturbation theory of the Rayleigh-Schrödinger type, using a three-center, four-electron model. In this paper, the analysis is extended to a (n + 1)-center, (n + 2)-electron model for rare gas halides of composition RXn, where R is the rare gas atom and X the halogen atom, in order to investigate the validity of the three-center, four-electron model. The compounds analyzed are XeFn, XeCln, KrFn and KrCln with n = 3 and 4, in different geometric configurations and for different states of total spin S. As before, we use exchange perturbation theory in first and second orders. The results are in good agreement with those obtained in the previous analysis and with experiments. Specifically, it is found that chlorides of rare gas atoms are not stable, that XeF4 has the square-planar configuration and that trifluorides cannot exist. The possible existence of KrF4 is discussed.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Exchange perturbation theory of the Rayleigh-Schrödinger type is applied, in first and second orders, to the problem of bonding in rare-gas halides. The basic model is that of a four-electron, three-center system with one effective electron replacing the unpaired electrons of a halogen atom, and two spin-paired electrons representing the closed shells of the rare-gas atom. On the basis of exchange perturbation theory, the model verifies a direct parallelism between bonding in rare-gas compounds and the phenomenon of super-exchange in ionic solids with paramagnetic cations. It is found that the observed stability and specific geometric configuration of the xenon and krypton fluorides are readily reproduced by the model. In addition, the model explains why other dihalides cannot exist. The two principal components of the interaction energy are found to be indirect exchange between halogen atoms via the rare-gas atoms (attractive in the stable configurations) and, in compounds with coordination higher than two, simultaneous interactions between three halogen atoms (always repulsive). The observed approximate constancy of the binding energy per bond in xenon fluorides with increasing coordination is accounted for.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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