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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Rat ; Cold ; Pineal gland ; Synaptic vesicles ; Zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide (ZIO) reaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In den synaptischen Bläschen der Nervenendigungen der Epiphyse von Ratten, welche 2 und 4 Tage einer Temperatur von −6° bis −8°C ausgesetzt worden waren, hat man eine signifikante Vermehrung des Zinkjodid-Osmiumtetroxyd (ZIO) reaktiven Materials festgestellt. Der durchschnittliche Durchmesser der ZIO-positiven synaptischen Vesiculae betrug bei den Kontrollratten 234 Å und bei den Ratten, welche 2 und 4 Tage unter der Kälte gelebt hatten, 380 Å, bzw. 379 Å. Die ZIO-Reaktion war bei den Kontrollratten in 49,3% der synaptischen Vesiculae positiv, nach zweitägiger Kälteeinwirkung waren 58,7% und nach viertägiger Kälteeinwirkung 72,1% der synaptischen Vesiculae ZIO-positiv. Auf Grund der vorliegenden Arbeit war es jedoch nicht möglich zu entscheiden, ob die Vermehrung des ZIO-reaktiven Materials mit einer gleichzeitigen Zunahme der biogenen Amine verbunden ist.
    Notes: Summary In the synaptic vesicles of pineal nerve endings of Wistar rats exposed for 2 and 4 days to a temperature of −6° to −8° C, a significant increase of the zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide (ZIO) reactive material was observed. The mean diameter of ZIO reactive synaptic vesicles of control rats was 234 Å; in rats exposed to cold for 2 and 4 days it was 380 Å, respectively 379 Å. In control rats the ZIO reaction was positive in 49,3% of the synaptic vesicles. The reactivity increased to 58,7% in rats exposed to cold for 2 days, and to 72,1% in rats exposed to cold for 4 days. However, the results of the present study do not permit to conclude if an increase of ZIO reactive material is accompanied by a simultaneuos increase of biogenic amines.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Calcitonin ; C-Cells of the thyroid and cells of the parathyroid glands ; Secondary hyperparathyroidism ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Im Verlauf ein- bis achtwöchiger Behandlung von Wistar-Ratten mit täglich 300 mMRC Einheiten Schweinecalcitonin kam es in den C-Zellen der Schilddrüse, verglichen mit denen der Kontrollserien (unbehandelte und mit Acetatpuffer allein behandelte Tiere), einerseits zu einer morphometrisch signifikanten Abahme der Zahl der Sekretgranula, während andererseits sämtliche Zellorganellen (Mitochondrie,, Golgi-Apparat und auch das granuläre endoplasmatische Reticulum) besser entwickelt waren. In den in gleichen Zeitabschnitten untersuchten Parathyroideazellen fanden wir bei mit Calcitonin behandelten Ratten Strukturveränderungen, die auf eine erhöhte Aktivität hinwiesen: Einfaltungen des Kerns, Erweiterung der Intercellularräume mit Vermehrung und Verlängerung der in diese hineinragenden Mikrovilli, bessere Ausbildung des Golgi-Apparates und des granulären endoplasmatischen Reticulums sowie eine größere Menge freier Ribosomen. Die Zahl der Sekretgranula war eindeutig höher als bei den Kontrolltieren. Der Ca ++- und Mg++-Blutspiegel zeigte während der ganzen Versuchsdauer bei allen Tieren keine statistisch faßbaren Änderungen. Die Autoren vertreten die Hypothese, daß die Aktivierung der C-Zellen durch das Auftreten eines durch die Calcitoninverabreichung hervorgerufenen sekundären Hyperparathyroidismus zustande kommt.
    Notes: Summary Male Wistar rats were injected for one to eight weeks with 300 mMRC units per day of porcine calcitonin. During this period C-cells (or “parafollicular” cells) of the thyroid gland and cells of the parathyroid glands were examined ultrastructurally. The C-cells were further studied morphometrically in animals treated with calcitonin dissolved in acetate buffer as well as in acetate buffer- and not-treated control animals. In the thyroid C cells the number of secretion granules significantly decreased following calcitonin administration, whereas the volume of all cell organelles (mitochondria, Golgi complex and granular endoplasmic reticulum) augmented. The cells of the parathyroid glands of the calcitonin-treated rats showed structural changes due to higher activity: invaginations of the nuclear envelope, enlargement of the intercellular spaces with increase in number and size of the microvilli, better development of the Golgi complex and the granular endoplasmic reticulum, larger population of free ribosomes and secretory granules. However, no significant differences in the blood calcium and magnesium levels were detected when a comparison was made of calcitonin-treated and control animals. All these observations support the hypothesis that the activation of the C-cells may result from a secondary hyperparathyroidism itself induced by the administration of moderate doses of calcitonin.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Lysosome ; Autophagy ; Phagocytosis ; Acid phosphatase ; Morphogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of the “physiological” cell death was studied in distal ventral bulbar cushions of 15 chick embryo hearts on the 4th and 5th day of incubation. Microperfusion fixation was performed. The ultracytochemistry of a lysosomal hydrolytic enzyme acid phosphatase was also investigated in another 15 embryonic hearts. In the course of the cell degeneration an increase in cellulr autophagy was observed without previous cytoplasmic or nuclear changes or phagocyte ingestion. A cytoplasmic diffusion of acid phosphatase outside of lysosomes was observed. Besides the cell death with the marked participation of the lysosomal system, another kind of dying cells was found, characterized by their nuclear pycnosis and cytoplasmic condensation. Starting from the 5th day of incubation the dying and dead cells were found phagocytized by some of their neighbouring viable mesenchymal cells. A formation of ribosomal crystals was not observed. The formation and fate of cytolysomes as well as the fate of phagocytes are discussed. The presence of pre-necrotic cells with important autophagy and of necrotic cells with nuclear changes was related to the possibility of a dual cause of the cell death. In the case of pre-necrotic cells the epigenetic factors like the biomechanic action of hemodynamics were considered, while the necrotic cells seem to be programmed to death by their genome. Finally the uniformity of cell death ultrastructure in different organs and species was noticed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Rat kidney ; Macula densa ; Dark and light cells ; Fixation procedure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Verfasser beschreiben die Ultrastruktur der dunklen Zellen in der Macula densa der Mittelstücke der Ratten-Niere nach Perfusionsfixierung in situ. In Vergleich mit den Resultaten aus einer früheren Versuchsreihe mit Immersionsfixierung ist der prozentuale Anteil der dunklen Zellen etwa viermal geringer, während ihre Ultrastruktur im Prinzip die gleiche geblieben ist. Die Verfasser vertreten die Auffassung, daß die dunklen Macula-Zellen nicht unbedingt Präparationsartefakte sind.
    Notes: Summary The authors describe the ultrastructure of the dark cells in the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule of the rat kidney after fixation carried out by vascular perfusion in situ. In this case the frequency of the dark cells compared with that of the light cells is about four times lower than in previous investigations using the fixation procedure by immersion, whereas the ultrastructure remains essentially unchanged. However, the authors believe that the dark cells of the macula densa are not necessarily artifacts due to the preparation of the specimens for examination in the electron microscope. At present it is not yet possible to decide if the dark and the light cells are two specific cell types of the macula densa or if they represent two different functional stages of a single cell type.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Résumé Dans les cellules endothéliales de capillaires iridiens de glaucomateux, on a constaté une diminution du volume des mitochondries, des vésicules micropinocytotiques et du nombre des ribosomes libres ainsi qu'un amincissement de la membrane basale. En revanche, ces cellules sont riches en corpuscules tubulaires «rod-shaped tubular bodies» deWeibel etPalade.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Résumé Après injection, pendant 2, 4 et 8 semaines, de 300 MRC microunités de Calcitonine porcine à des rats Wistar mâles de 250 g, on a constaté, par des méthodes histoenzymologiques, une diminution de l'activité des glandes pinéales.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Pineal body ; Wistar rat ; Striated muscle fibers ; Triads ; Helicoidal polyribosomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Unter 35 Pinealdrüsen von erwachsenen Wistar-Ratten wurden 8 mit quergestreiften Muskelfasern gefunden. Diese liegen in der Peripherie des Organs und in der Nähe des Pinealstiels. In 3 Fällen wurden direkte Kontakte zwischen Muskelfasern und Kapillaren gesehen. Die Pinealmuskelfasern besitzen ein Sarkolemma, das aus einer Basalmembran und einem retikulären Fibrillengitter aufgebaut ist. Mehrere Merkmale, die für embryonale Muskelfasern charakteristisch sind, werden in den Pinealmuskelfasern gefunden: Reichtum am Sarkoplasma, Armut an Myofibrillen, helikoidale Polyribosomen, unterschiedlich lokalisierte und häufig longitudinale Triaden, Übergang von granulärem in agranuläres sarkoplasmatisches Retikulum, Anzeichen mikropinozytotischer Prozesse, ungeordnete Myofilamente und primitiv gebaute A-Bänder. Die A- und I-Bänder sind in Längsschnitten gut sichtbar, während H-Zonen und M-Streifen meistens fehlen. Die Z-Streifen, gut ausgebildet nach jeder Fixation, sind nie reglemäßig und geradlinig wie in der Skelettmuskulatur. Die Länge einer Sarkomere beträgt 1,25–1,4 μm nach OsO4-Fixation und 2,4–3,1 μm nach Aldehydvorfixation. Soweit elektronenmikroskopische Befunde ein Urteil erlauben, dürften die Pinealmuskelfasern — obwohl embryonalen Charakters — kontraktionsfähig sein. In einem Fall wurde ein wahrscheinlich (neuro)endokrino-muskulärer Kontakt zwischen einer Muskelfaser und einem Pinealzellausläufer gefunden.
    Notes: Summary 8 of 35 pineal bodies obtained from adult male Wistar rats were found to contain striated muscle fibers. These are located at the periphery of the pineal body or in close proximity to the pineal stalk. In 3 cases a direct contact between capillaries and muscle fibers was observed. The pineal muscle fibers possess a sarcolemma which is formed by the basal membrane and a network of reticular fibers. Several features characteristic of embryonic muscle fibers are found in the fibers of the pineal body: abundance of sarcoplasm, scarce myofibrils, helicoidal polyribosomes, triads variously located and frequently longitudinally oriented, transition of rough- to smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, presence of micropinocytotic vesicles and primitively formed A-bands. A- and I-bands are well visible in longitudinal sections, while H- and M-bands are mostly lacking. The Z-lines, well formed after every fixation, are never regular and straight as seen in skeletal muscles. After fixation in OsO4 the length of a sarcomere is 1,25–1,4 μm, after aldehyde prefixation it is 2,4–3,1 μm. According to electron microscopic findings the pineal muscle fibers, although being of embryonic character, seem to have the ability to contract. In one case a possibly (neuro)endocrino-muscular contact between a muscle fiber and a pineal cell process has been observed.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 148 (1974), S. 371-379 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Pineal gland ; Rat ; Electric coupling areas ; Freeze-etching
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pineal glands of Wistar rats were fixed in glutaraldehyde and prepared by the freeze-etching technique. With regard to the form and internal structure of pineal cells this technique has revealed nothing essentially new. Synaptic ribbons are very rarely found. A regular diagonal arrangement of membrane attached particles between the Schwann cell and the axon of an autonomic nerve terminal was observed. Three types of contact areas between pineal cells are described. In the first two types, which occur more frequently, the diameter of the area varied from 1000 to 2500 Å, with irregularly aggregated membrane associated particles. The third type, larger but less frequently found, has a surface area of 0.4 μm2 and much more regularly distributed membrane associated particles (ø 88 Å). These contact areas can be considered to be electric coupling areas between pineal cells.
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