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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Analgesic ; antipyretic ; antiphlogistic ; intestinal absorption
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The excretion kinetics and blood levels of alclofenac (14C-carbonyl) have been investigated in 9 patients treated orally (400, 800 or 1200 mg single dose) or rectally (400 mg single dose). The results obtained have shown that: 1) the absorption and excretion of oral alclofenac are highly effective and rapid at the dose levels tested; 2) the blood levels are directly dose-related but cannot be correlated quantiatively with the urinary excretion; 3) binding of the drug to erythrocytes is only detectable at high blood levels; 4) rectal and oral administration are equally effective; 5) the analgesic activity of alclofenac is related to its blood concentrations.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Alclofenac ; antiphlogistic ; man ; pharmacokinetics ; dosage regimes ; plasma levels
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A one compartment open model has been found to fit plasma concentration data previously obtained in man after single oral doses of alclofenac; the parameters of the model are: $${\text{t}}_{\tfrac{{\text{1}}}{{\text{2}}}} $$ abs=1.3±0.7h, $${\text{t}}_{\tfrac{{\text{1}}}{{\text{2}}}} $$ el=3.5±1.2h, Vd/F=17±6. The model has been used successfully to predict steady-state plasma levels of alclofenac after multiple oral doses. One treatment schedule (initial dose 500 mg, maintenance dose 250 mg five times a day) was administered to two volunteers for five days and the plasma levels of alclofenac determined daily. The latter were in good agreement with computer predictions based on the model. It is now possible, therefore, to select the most suitable dosage regimes for this drug.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 23 (1974), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: —Injection of a soluble protein fraction from mouse brain into rabbits gave rise to an antibody which was specific for galactocerebroside. The antigen had the following characteristics: (1) it was present in the soluble fraction of a mouse brain homogenate but absent from the soluble fraction of homogenates of mouse liver, spleen, kidney and testis; (2) it was non-dialysable; (3) it voided from a Sephadex G200 column; (4) on immunodiffusion with antibody directed against it, it gave a sharp single precipitin band; (5) it bound to DEAE cellulose column and was eluted with high salt. Given these characteristics the antigen might have been identified as a ‘brain specific protein’. However, the lipid nature of the antigen was revealed when it was found that it was not destroyed by Pronase digestion and could be quantitatively extracted with chloroform-methanol. The antigen has been identified as a galaetocerebroside and is 100 times more abundant in the myelin fraction than in the soluble fraction of the mouse brain homogenates. The antigen could have been falsely identified as a ‘brain specific protein’ if the antigenicity and macromolecular behaviour of lipids was overlooked.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-9285
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Dans une petite ville autrichienne d'environ 20 000 habitants, on a cherché à déterminer quelles sont les influences de l'environnement qui vont de pair avec des inadaptations psychosociales, et quelle est la nature des relations entre différentes formes de manifestations de psychopathologie sociale. Les sujets étaient des personnes connues des autorités de la ville à cause de différents troubles. Le groupe des adultes consistait en 515 personnes, à savoir: a) 171 criminels, b) 302 personnes présentant des psychoses et des névroses («cas psychiatriques») et c) 42 personnes qui se sont signalées par leur «mauvaise vie», par exemple par la propagation de maladies vénériennes, la prostitution, plusieurs enfants illégitimes, etc. («déchéance sexuelle»). Le groupe des écoliers comprenait: a) 98 «échecs scolaires» (les plus mauvais élèves) parmi les enfants sortis de l'école durant la même période de 3 ans, b) un groupe de contrôle composé également de 98 enfants sortis de l'école durant les mêmes années, non sélectionnés, c) tous les élèves des classes spéciales générales pour enfants montrant des difficultés à apprendre (N=123). - Le résultat le plus important de cette investigation fut la constatation que les «cas psychiatriques» ne se distinguaient pas nettement, pour ce qui est de la plupart des caractéristiques économiques et sociales, de la population générale, et que, de même, leurs relations avec les autres groupes pathologiques n'étaient pas nombreuses. En revanche, les deux autres groupes — les criminels et les cas de déchéance sexuelle — se ressemblaient pour ce qui est de la plupart des caractéristiques écologiques, et se distinguaient de façon significative aussi bien des cas psychiatriques que de la population générale. Les sujets de ces groupes proviennent de la couche sociale la plus basse, ils vivent dans les zones d'habitation les plus défavorables, avec le prestige social le plus bas; du point de vue professionnel, il s'agit surtout de manoeuvres, et beaucoup d'entre eux reçoivent des subsides de l'assistance sociale. Il est particulièrement frappant, et ceci est important pour la théorie et pour la pratique, qu'entre les sujets des deux groupes mentionnés (criminels et cas de déchéance sexuelle), et entre eux et les groupes d'écoliers, il existe de nombreuses interdépendances: tandis qu'il n'y a presque pas de liens de parenté entre les adultes mal adaptés et les élèves du groupe de contrôle, il existe de nombreuses relations de parenté entre eux et les échecs scolaires, et encore plus avec les élèves des classes spéciales. Nous avons pu constater que la majorité des enfants des classes spéciales, à l'exception d'une minorité de cas de détérioration psycho-organique, appartiennent à des familles nombreuses, avec plus de 4 enfants, de la couche sociale la plus basse, et qu'ils proviennent du même milieu que les adultes asociaux-criminels. Ceci nous conduit à la conclusion qu'il existe une relation étroite entre pauvreté, habitations surpeuplées dans les bas quartiers, criminalité, déchéance morale et échecs scolaires, et que des individus élevés dans ce milieu transmettent leur inadaptation à leur nombreuse descendance. Ce résultat est certainement d'une signification qui dépasse le cadre local. Nous avons pu constater que le même phénomène a déjà été souvent décrit dans le contexte des grandes villes dans des pays hautement industrialisés, mais que les petites villes en sont également touchées, comme le démontre notre investigation.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung In einer österreichischen Kleinstadt mit etwa 20 000 Einwohnern wurde untersucht, welche Umwelteinflüsse mit psychosozialen Fehlanpassungen einhergehen, und welcher Art die Zusammenhänge zwischen verschiedenen Ausprägungsformen sozialer Psychopathologie sind. Die Probanden waren Personen, welche während einer Dreijahresperiode wegen verschiedener Auffälligkeiten den Behörden der Stadt bekannt geworden waren. Die Gruppe der Erwachsenen bestand aus 515 Personen, und zwar a) 171 Kriminellen, b) 302 Personen mit Geisteskrankheiten und Neurosen („psychiatrische Fälle“) und c) 42 Personen, die durch schlechten Lebenswandel, wie der Verbreitung von Geschlechtskrankheiten, Prostitution, mehrere uneheliche Kinder etc. („sexuelle Verwahrlosung“) auffällig geworden waren. Die Schülergruppen umfaßten a) 98 „Schulversager“ (schlechteste Schüler) unter den Schulabgängen in der gleichen Dreijahresperiode, b) eine Kontrollgruppe von ebenfalls 98 unselektierten Schulabgängen der gleichen Jahrgänge und c) alle Schüler der allgemeinen Sonderschule für lernschwache Kinder (N=123). - Das wichtigste Ergebnis der Untersuchung war die Feststellung, daß sich die „psychiatrischen Fälle“ in den meisten wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Merkmalen nicht wesentlich von der allgemeinen Bevölkerung unterschieden, und daß auch ihre Beziehungen zu Mitgliedern der anderen Pathologiegruppen nicht zahlreich waren. Die beiden anderen Gruppen — die Kriminellen bzw. die sexuell Verwahrlosten — waren einander hingegen in den meisten ökologischen Merkmalen sehr ähnlich und unterschieden sich sowohl von den psychiatrischen Fällen wie auch von der allgemeinen Bevölkerung signifikant. Die Angehörigen dieser Gruppen kommen aus der niedrigsten sozialen Schicht, sie leben in den schlechtesten Wohngegenden mit dem geringsten Sozialprestige; beruflich sind sie vorwiegend Hilfsarbeiter, und viele von ihnen sind Fürsorgeempfänger.- Besonders auffallend und für Theorie und Praxis wichtig ist das Auffinden zahlreicher Interdependenzen zwischen den Angehörigen der erwähnten beiden Gruppen (Kriminelle und sexuell Verwahrloste) und zwischen ihnen und den Schülergruppen: während fast keine verwandtschaftlichen Zusammenhänge zwischen den fehlangepaßten Erwachsenen und den Schülern der Kontrollgruppe gefunden wurden, bestehen zahlreiche Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse zwischen ihnen und den Schulversagern und noch mehr zu den Sonderschülern. Wir konnten feststellen, daß ein Großteil der Kinder der allgemeinen Sonderschule, mit Ausnahme der Minderzahl der organisch Hirngeschädigten, aus Großfamilien mit mehr als 4 Kindern aus der niedrigsten Sozialschicht kommt und daß sie aus dem gleichen Milieu wie die asozial-kriminellen Erwachsenen stammen. Dies veranlaßt uns zu der Schlußfolgerung, daß ein innerer Zusammenhang zwischen Armut, überfüllten Wohnungen in schlechten Quartieren, Kriminalität, moralischer Verwahrlosung und Schulversagen besteht und daß Individuen, die in diesem Milieu aufwachsen, ihre Fehlhaltungen an ihre zahlreichen Nachkommen weiterreichen. Dieses Ergebnis ist sicher von mehr als lokalspezifischer Bedeutung. Wir konnten feststellen, daß das gleiche Phänomen schon vielfach im Kontext von Großstädten in hochindustrialisierten Ländern beschrieben worden war, daß aber auch Kleinstädte, wie unsere Untersuchung zeigt, nicht immun sind.
    Notes: Summary The incidence of psychosocial maladaptation was investigated in an Austrian city of 20,000 with respect to the relationship between selected ecological factors and types of social and psychopathology. Three cohorts of people who had come to the attention of the health authorities or the police during a 3-year period were studied: 171 “criminals”, 302 people with a diagnosis of “mental illness or neurosis”, and 42 persons with a “record of sociopathic behavior” in sum 515 individuals. Three groups of school children were also investigated: 98 school failures, 98 unselected students in the same class, and all students (123) in a special school for slow learners. Results show that the psychiatric population does not differ from the general population as to socioeconomic class or other ecological variables, and that there was little overlap between this group and the other two groups of deviant adults. The “criminals” and “sociopaths” were similar to each other in most of these respects, but were significantly different from the general population. They belonged to the lowest socioeconomic class, lived in the worst residential areas, and were either unskilled laborers or welfare recipients. There was considerable overlap between these two groups, and many students in the two abnormal groups who were related to the adults in the sociopathic or criminal groups, whereas, there was almost no relationship between parents in these two groups and the students in the control group. Another important finding was that the families with 4 or more children contributed twelve times as much to the special school for slow learners as compared with families with 1 or 2 children. This figure was not corrected for social class differentials, but the prevalence of large families is clearly higher in lower than in upper socioeconomic classes.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 226 (1970), S. 1154-1155 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] MODELS of the temperature and density distributions in the solar chromosphere may be tested by radio observations of the dependence of the brightness temperature on wavelength and position across the solar disk. The general increase in brightness temperature Tb at the centre of the disk with ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary An experimental study has been carried out on the effect of testosterone propionate and stilboestrol dipropionate on R. tetragona infections in young male and female chickens. The study involved 800 cysticercoids and 80 birds belonging to four strains, White Leghorn, White Rock, Desi and Hybrid between White Leghorn and Desi. The data obtained suggested that exogenous testosterone has not significantly affected the susceptibility-resistance relationships of birds to this tapeworm infection. Stilboestrol, on the other hand, appeared to have exerted an inhibitory influence on the growth and development of the worms, as evidenced by the lengthening of the prepatent period of worms in White Leghorn and reduction in weight of worms recovered from experimentals of all breeds except the Hybrids. There was significant interbreed difference as regards prepatent period, average segment production, development and weight of worms in the case of stilboestrol-treated birds. Except for the prepatent period of worms, such interbreed differences were not pronounced in the testosterone-treated birds.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 246 (1973), S. 193-197 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Although astronomy at submillimetre wavelengths is still in its infancy, work in two different areas—observations of HII regions and molecular clouds, and observations of the temperature minimum in the solar atmosphere—is particularly ...
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 252 (1974), S. 666-666 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We particularly searched for the two transitions of methyl cyanide which had been detected by Ulich and Conklin1 when the comet was 0.8 AU from the Sun before perihelion. As we were observing the comet after perihelion, when it was approximately the same distance from the Sun, the temperature of ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 227 (1970), S. 1303-1306 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Clues to the origin of the enormously energetic activity in quasars and galactic nuclei may come from observations of the varying radio emission from several objects outside the Galaxy. The varying signals from these objects often seem to come from areas which are only a few light months in ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract By high resolution observations at 3 mm wavelength during the eclipses of September 11, 1969 and March 7, 1970 we have observed two filaments on the solar disc in absorption. We analyze in detail the 3.3 mm eclipse data and 9.5 mm (non-eclipse) data we have pertaining to the large filament observed on September 11, 1969. At 3.3 mm the plasma temperature in the filament is about 3900K, and at 9.5 mm it is about 6400K, indicating a multicomponent model. An upper bound of N e 2 L 〈 1028 for the emission measure of a hot component at T 〉 104K is obtained.
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