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  • 1970-1974  (3)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: —Eight male monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) aged 6–9 months were divided into two groups and fed either an adequate protein diet (20% casein) or a protein deficient diet (2% casein). After 3- 5 months of receiving the low protein diet, the malnourished monkeys showed extensive fatty metamorphosis of the liver cells, distorted patterns of plasma and hepatic free amino acid pools, and other features consistent with the diagnosis of protein-calorie malnutrition. Examination of the cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem in the malnourished animals revealed profound accumulation of 3-methylhistidine, histidine and homocarnosine in all three regions. For histidine, the cerebral, cerebellar and brain stem levels in the protein deficient animals increased by 145, 104 and 101 per cent over levels observed in corresponding regions of the brain in well-fed monkeys. Similarly, there were significant elevations in homocarnosine contents of the cerebrum (+ 99 per cent), cerebellum (+ 140 per cent) and brain stem (+ 146 per cent) in comparison to levels in control animals. In contrast, the levels of valine, serine and aspartic acid were markedly reduced in all three brain areas in the malnourished animals. Protein-calorie deficiency also produced reductions in the brain levels of taurine, glutamic acid, isoleucine, leucine and threonine which varied in magnitude in the three major regions of the brain examined. These biochemical alterations which may in part underlie some of the psychomotor changes often observed in protein-calorie malnutrition, were discussed not only in relation to the role of amino acids as precursors for the synthesis of neuroregulatory substances but also with due regard to the possibility that some of these ninhydrin-positive substances such as GABA, homocarnosine, glycine and the dicarboxylic amino acids may possess neuroexcitatory or inhibitory properties in various parts of the central nervous system.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract— Seventeen monkeys (M. nemestrina and M. fascicularis) aged 10 months to about 5 yr were divided into two groups and fed either an adequate protein diet (20% casein) or a low-protein diet (2% casein). The diets were supplied to the animals in restricted amount (200 g/animal in two daily rations). In one experiment, the malnourished animals were initially fed a diet containiing 8 per cent protein and the protein content of the diet was gradually reduced over a period of 9 months, to 2 per cent. After about 3 months on the 2 per cent protein diet, the malnourished monkeys showed growth failure, severe anorexia, peri-ocular oedema, tremors of the head and limbs, atrophy of several visceral organs, fatty liver, hypoalbuminaemia, and depressed serum levels of many essential amino acids with an elevation of the ratio of non-essential to essential amino acids. These features are consistent with protein-calorie malnutrition. Examination of the brains revealed significant alterations in the levels of glycerophosphoethanolamine (—40 per cent), glutamic acid (—25 per cent), histidine (+230 per cent), homocamosine (+185 per cent), 3-methyl-histidine (+147 per cent), lysine (+55 per cent), phenylalanine (+33 per cent) and tyrosine (+26 per cent) in comparison to findings on the well-fed monkeys. The possible implications of elevated cerebral contents of homocarnosine in malnourished monkeys are discussed in the light of several reported human cases in whom neurological disorders are associated with increased histidine-containing dipeptides in the brain, CSF, blood and urine.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Ileal absorption of intact protein was assessed in groups of control and protein-deficient rats during a 5-month period of dietary protein restriction. At monthly intervals following diet initiation, 3 animals from both the control and deficient groups were administered horseradish peroxidase via ligated ileal loops either 15, 45 or 90 minutes before loop excision and processing for light and electron microscopy. Morphological evaluations revealed no change in pinocytotic activity during the 5 months of progressive protein malnutrition. After 3 months, however, partial deterioration of mucosal structure was observed with apparent separation of apical intercellular junctions and movement of peroxidase molecules directly between cells. These observations in the ileum are compared to previous findings in the jejunum. It is suggested that ileal and jejunal absorptive cells respond uniquely to protein deprivation but that eventual junctional deterioration occurs in both regions with potential detrimental consequences for the host.
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