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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY.— The permeability of excised human skin to dimethyl sulphoxide and the effects of this solvent on water permeability are described. The results of measurements of the electrical impedance of excised human skin both before and after chemical and heat treatments are also given. Stratum corneum is shown to undergo irreversible structural changes when heated above 65°C. or incubated in aqueous media at pH 〈 3 or 〉 9. Simultaneous measurements of water permeability and electrical impedance of skin samples subjected to treatments with dimethyl sulphoxide, detergents and surfactants show that there is a good correlation (coefficient - 0·78) between the two quantities. Some organic solvents including aliphatic acids, bases, and neutral compounds are shown to produce large changes in electrical impedance, and hence, it is inferred, in water permeability. It is suggested that these changes are due to solution of skin components, loosening of the skin structure, and hence swelling and hydration of the skin. The solvent induced changes in water permeability provide an explanation for the accelerating effect of the solvents on the penetration rates of topically applied drugs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 215 (1967), S. 584-586 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Iron is carried in blood plasma by the protein transferrin, which is able to carry two atoms of iron. The availability of bound iron to immature red blood cells seems to vary according to the way in which the iron is distributed on the molecule of ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 218 (1968), S. 1211-1214 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Recent work on the structure and function of transferrin indicates that it is not only an inert carrier of iron but that it has a complex function in the absorption and distribution of iron in the ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0449-296X
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The molecular weight distribution of liquid polyethylene glycols 200, 300, and 400 can be determined by gas chromatography by using trimethylsilyl ether derivatives. The relative response factors for the first five members of the homologous series were determined experimentally. Attempts are made to extrapolate the experimental data to relative response factors for higher members of the homologous series.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-11-08
    Description: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 is able to replicate in primary human macrophages without stimulating innate immunity despite reverse transcription of genomic RNA into double-stranded DNA, an activity that might be expected to trigger innate pattern recognition receptors. We reasoned that if correctly orchestrated HIV-1 uncoating and nuclear entry is important for evasion of innate sensors then manipulation of specific interactions between HIV-1 capsid and host factors that putatively regulate these processes should trigger pattern recognition receptors and stimulate type 1 interferon (IFN) secretion. Here we show that HIV-1 capsid mutants N74D and P90A, which are impaired for interaction with cofactors cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 6 (CPSF6) and cyclophilins (Nup358 and CypA), respectively, cannot replicate in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages because they trigger innate sensors leading to nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and IRF3, the production of soluble type 1 IFN and induction of an antiviral state. Depletion of CPSF6 with short hairpin RNA expression allows wild-type virus to trigger innate sensors and IFN production. In each case, suppressed replication is rescued by IFN-receptor blockade, demonstrating a role for IFN in restriction. IFN production is dependent on viral reverse transcription but not integration, indicating that a viral reverse transcription product comprises the HIV-1 pathogen-associated molecular pattern. Finally, we show that we can pharmacologically induce wild-type HIV-1 infection to stimulate IFN secretion and an antiviral state using a non-immunosuppressive cyclosporine analogue. We conclude that HIV-1 has evolved to use CPSF6 and cyclophilins to cloak its replication, allowing evasion of innate immune sensors and induction of a cell-autonomous innate immune response in primary human macrophages.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3928559/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3928559/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rasaiyaah, Jane -- Tan, Choon Ping -- Fletcher, Adam J -- Price, Amanda J -- Blondeau, Caroline -- Hilditch, Laura -- Jacques, David A -- Selwood, David L -- James, Leo C -- Noursadeghi, Mahdad -- Towers, Greg J -- 090940/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0501446/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0900950/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9721629/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_PC_12024/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U105181010/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2013 Nov 21;503(7476):402-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12769. Epub 2013 Nov 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University College London, Medical Research Council Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, 90 Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24196705" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Capsid Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Cyclophilins/metabolism ; Cyclosporine/metabolism ; HIV Infections/immunology/metabolism/pathology/virology ; HIV-1/*immunology/metabolism ; Humans ; *Immune Evasion ; Immunity, Innate/*immunology ; Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism ; Interferon Type I/immunology/secretion ; Macrophages/cytology/*immunology/pathology/*virology ; Molecular Chaperones/metabolism ; Monocytes/cytology ; NF-kappa B/metabolism ; Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins/metabolism ; Receptors, Pattern Recognition ; Virus Internalization ; Virus Replication/immunology ; mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors/deficiency/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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