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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 220 (1968), S. 792-793 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Fig. 1. Head-space vapour chromatogram of glucose (8 per cent) solution fermented for 3 h by baker's yeast (8 per cent) at 30 C. The vapour sampling has been carried out after removing the yeast and equilibrating the solution for 15 min at 40 C. Conditions: electron capture detector; column (length ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 33 (1968), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: SUMMARY— Gas chromatography was applied to eight different types of whisky, two of cognac, one of brandy, and four of rum to determine the relative proportions of volatile fatty acids; with the lower molecular acids as free acids, but upwards from caprylic acid as methyl esters. Acetic acid and the total amount of volatile acids were measured quantitatively. Rum contained the largest amount of volatile acids, 600 mg/L, while one of the brands of Scotch whisky contained the least, 90 mg/L. Acetic acid represented 40–95% of the total amount of volatile acids in the whisky; for cognac and brandy, the value was .50–75%, and for rum 75–90%. The relative amounts have been reported for 21 acids, with acetic acid excluded. Capric, caprylic and lauric acid were the main components in whisky, cognac and brandy. Of the beverages analyzed, rum contained the largest quantity of lower fatty acids, particularly propionic and butyric acid; the main component of Jamaican rum was propionic acid. The main components of the group of long-chain fatty acids were myristic, palmitic and palmitoleic acids. Scotch whisky contained equal amounts of palmitic and palmitoleic acid; palmitoleic acid regularly appeared in smaller amounts in the other beverages
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary 1. It has been confirmed that under anaerobic conditions at pH 2 pyruvic acid is vigorously decarboxylated by intact baker's yeast, but hardly at all at pH 5.5. Furthermore, the decarboxylation occurs more slowly with semiaerobically cultured than with aerobically cultured baker's yeast. 2. The penetration of pyruvic acid ethyl ester into the cell is not dependent upon the pH of the medium. The ester is decarboxylated by intact yeast at about the same rate, at pH 2 and 5.5. It is not decarboxylated by a purified preparation of pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1). 3. Hydroxypyruvic acid is decarboxylated only slowly by intact yeast at pH 2 and pyruvate decarboxylase. The attachment of a phenyl group to the pyruvic acid molecule increase the permeability, but causes an inhibition of pyruvate decarboxylase. 4. α-Ketoglutaric acid is decarboxylated neither by intact yeast nor by an enzyme preparation, but with disintegrated yeast a noticeable formation of CO2 is observable. By intact yeast, the γ-ethyl ester of α-ketoglutaric acid reacts towards the acidity of the medium in the same way as does pyruvic acid. With purified pyruvate decarboxylase, the ester is decarboxylated more slowly than α-ketovaleric acid, but more rapidly than α-ketocaproic acid. Nevertheless, it does not penetrate into the intact yeast cell at a weak concentration to the same extent as do the acids last mentioned. α-Ketoglutaric acid diethyl ester behaves in a similar way to pyruvic acid ethyl ester: it penetrates the plasma membrane, and is decarboxylated by yeast but not by a preparation of pyruvate decarboxylase.
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