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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Nicotine ; bioavailability ; nasal spray
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The absolute bioavailability of nicotine administered nasally, as drops to the nasal conchae and nasal septum, and as a nasal spray, has been studied in eight healthy volunteers. Single nasal doses of 1 mg nicotine were given and plasma concentrations of nicotine were followed for 6 h. Compared to an intravenous infusion of nicotine, the bioavailability of the nasal administrations was 60 to 75%. The rate of absorption was fast, the maximum concentration being reached after about 10 min. In the present study, there was no significant difference in the rate or extent of absorption between the different nasal treatments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé On a examiné, 5,7 ans en moyenne (de 3 à 13) après le traumatisme, 39 patients de 34 ans d'âge moyen, traités orthopédiquement pour rupture unilatéral du ligament croisé antérieur (LCA). Le membre inférieur opposé a servi de contrôle. Le score d'activité de Tegner était significativement inférieur au niveau d'activité souhaité. Aucun patient n'était asymptomatique et seulement deux sur 39 pouvaient pratiquer des sports nécessitant des mouvements de pivotement. L'instabilité et la douleur étaient les symptômes les plus habituels. Le moment isokinétique de flexion et d'extension, le saut à cloche-pied, ainsi que la laxité du genou testée instrumentalement, étaient significativement altérés du côté blessé, lors de l'examen. La dégradation fonctionnelle n'était pas correlée avec les tests cliniques de laxité du genou. Peu de patients sont subjectivement satisfaits de la fonction de leur genou après rupture du LCA, malgré un programme particulier de réhabilitation.
    Notes: Summary Thirty-nine patients with ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) were treated conservatively and were subsequently examined at an average of 5.7 years after injury, the uninjured leg acting as a control. The Tegner activity score was significantly lower than the desired activity level. No patients were free of symptoms and only two could take part in sport which involved pivoting. The isokinetic knee extensor and flexor torques, as well as the one-leg-hop and instrumented knee joint laxity tests, were significantly impaired at follow-up. Functional impairment was not related to tests of knee joint laxity. Few patients were pleased with their subjective knee function after an ACL rupture despite thorough initial rehabilitation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; aetiology ; early growth ; breast feeding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Growth during the first years of life in relation to type of feeding in infancy was retrospectively studied in an unselected population-based group of 297 children who had been diagnosed with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus before the age of 15 years (probands) and 792 individually-matched referent subjects. Reliable data were collected from child welfare clinics. Probands weighed slightly less at birth but their weight gain at 6, 9, 18 and 30 months of age was significantly greater (p〈0.02) than that of referent children. The weight gain of children who had never been breast-fed was more marked than that of breast-fed children; this was found for both probands and referent children. But also among exclusively breast-fed children (〉 2 months), probands gained significantly more in weight from birth up to 18 and 30 months of age than exclusively breast-fed referent children. Early weight gain appears to be a risk factor for development of Type 1 diabetes. The lower weight gain in breast-fed compared to non-breast-fed children may explain the protective effect of breast feeding against Type 1 diabetes observed in several studies.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Key words Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, aetiology, early growth, breast feeding.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Growth during the first years of life in relation to type of feeding in infancy was retrospectively studied in an unselected population-based group of 297 children who had been diagnosed with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus before the age of 15 years (probands) and 792 individually-matched referent subjects. Reliable data were collected from child welfare clinics. Probands weighed slightly less at birth but their weight gain at 6, 9, 18 and 30 months of age was significantly greater (p 〈0.02) than that of referent children. The weight gain of children who had never been breast-fed was more marked than that of breast-fed children; this was found for both probands and referent children. But also among exclusively breast-fed children (〉2 months), probands gained significantly more in weight from birth up to 18 and 30 months of age than exclusively breast-fed referent children. Early weight gain appears to be a risk factor for development of Type 1 diabetes. The lower weight gain in breast-fed compared to non-breast-fed children may explain the protective effect of breast feeding against Type 1 diabetes observed in several studies. [Diabetologia (1994) 37: 91–94]
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This investigation was performed to assess the bone-to-implant surface contact at fixtures of titanium that either had a standard machine prepared or a TiO2-blasted surface. Five beagle dogs were used in the experiment. Extractions of the premolars were performed in the maxilla. After 4 months of healing, 5 standard machine-prepared fixtures and 5 prepared according to the TioBlast technique were inserted. Two months later another 5 “standard” and 5 TiO Blast-prepared implants were inserted. Four months after the first fixture installation, the animals were killed and ground sections prepared from each implant site. Of the 20 implants installed, 19 were successfully incorporated. The mean bone-to-implant surface for “standard” fixtures was about 40% both at the 2 and 4 months observation interval. The corresponding figures for the TiO Blast-prepared fixtures were similar during the first 2 months of observation, while subsequently the TioBlast-prepared fixture surface seemed to stimulate to a more close bone-to-implant contact (65%) than the “standard” one.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Sixty fasciotomies of the deep posterior compartment were performed on 30 patients with longstanding bilateral medial tibial syndrome (mean duration 25 months). The initial symptoms occurred during sports activities in all cases. Only 2 of the athletes were able to continue sports at an ordinary activity level. The diagnosis was based on a typical history of longstanding exertional pain and clinical findings of tenderness at the postero-medial border of the tibia. Radiographs showed no abnormalities. Scintigrams were performed in 12 patients in whom stress fractures could not be excluded by radiographs and clinical examination. Conservative treatment failed to relieve the symptoms. At follow-up 34 months (range 6–85) after surgery, 95% of the men and 73% of the women were free of symptoms or improved compared with prior to surgery. Whereas 68% of the men were totally free of symptoms, the corresponding figure for the women was 36%. Ninety-five percent of the men and 82% of the women returned to sport after surgery. Seventy-four percent of the men and 54% of the women returned to an activity level similar to that prior to injury. We conclude that fasciotomy of the deep posterior compartment gives a good long-term result in patients with medial tibial syndrome when conservative treatment fails. There was no significant difference between the sexes.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 194 (1962), S. 83-83 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Cook et al.1 assume that 'heat pulses' in some cases play an important part in the initiation process. In the present investigation the possibility of a heat pulse which propagates at a great speed without being directly associated with a shock front is discussed. It is preliminarily assumed that ...
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 190 (1961), S. 709-710 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] An analogous phenomenon is the initiation of a cylindrical charge by an axial shock-wave. In that case the detonation sets out from a circular, coaxial area on the shock front, the radius of which is smaller than the radius of the charge2, and the maximum apparent supervelocity goes to infinity. ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 185 (1960), S. 523-524 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Fig. 1 Fig. la shows that the expanding detonation gas is non-transparent to the background light. This implies that absorption of light is important in determining the light observed. In the case of phlegmatized PET N (10 per cent wax), which is very deficient in oxygen, this may be due to ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 183 (1959), S. 247-248 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] In detonation with high velocity the original surface of the explosive is luminous due to the emission of light at the passage of the reaction zone. The luminosity of the surface is often very heterogeneous. Compressed TNT thus gives a distinctive pattern of small, rather sharply defined surfaces ...
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