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  • 1
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  68. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, 90. Tagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie und 45. Tagung des Berufsverbandes der Fachärzte für Orthopädie; 20041019-20041023; Berlin; DOC04dguE3-269 /20041019/
    Publication Date: 2004-10-20
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  Evidenzbasierte Medizin - Anspruch und Wirklichkeit; 102. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft; 20040923-20040926; Berlin; DOC04dogDO.07.05 /20040922/
    Publication Date: 2004-09-21
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Key words Acute myeloid leukemia ; Myelodysplastic syndrome ; Secondary leukemia ; Interleukin-2 ; G-CSF
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Intensive chemotherapy followed by treatment with interleukin-2 (IL-2) was evaluated in a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial including 18 patients with refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation (RAEB-T), 86 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) evolving from myelodysplastic syndromes, and six patients with secondary AML after previous chemotherapy. Median age was 58 years (range: 18–76 years). Forty-nine patients (45%) achieved a complete remission (CR) after two induction cycles with idarubicin, ara-C, and etoposide, 52% of them aged ≤60 years and 35% aged 〉60 years (p=0.06). After two consolidation courses, patients were randomized to four cycles of either high- or low-dose IL-2. Patients aged up to 55 years with an HLA-identical sibling donor were eligible for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. The median relapse-free survival was 12.5 months, with a probability of ongoing CR at 6.5 years of 19%. Overall survival of all patients was 8 months, and 21 months for the CR patients. Median survival was significantly longer among patients aged ≤60 years than among the older patients (16 vs 6 months, p〈0.001). Median duration of survival and relapse-free survival were not statistically different in the two IL-2 treatment arms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Key words Tumor antigens ; T cell responses ; Peptide immunization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The identification of tumor-associated antigens recognized by cellular or humoral effectors of the immune system has opened new perspectives for cancer therapy. Different groups of cancer-associated antigens have been described as targets for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vitro and in vivo: 1) cancer-testis (CT) antigens, which are expressed in different tumors and normal testis; 2) melanocyte differentiation antigens; 3) point mutations of normal genes; 4) antigens that are overexpressed in malignant tissues; and 5) viral antigens. Clinical studies with peptides derived from these antigens have been initiated to induce specific CTL responses in vivo. Immunological and clinical parameters for the assessment of peptide-specific reactions have been defined, i.e., delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), CTL, autoimmmune, and tumor regression responses. Preliminary results demonstrate that tumor-associated peptides alone elicit specific DTH and CTL responses leading to tumor regression after intradermal injection. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was proven effective in enhancing peptide-specific immune reactions by amplification of dermal peptide-presenting dendritic cells. Long-lasting complete tumor regressions have been observed after induction of peptide-specific CTLs. However, in single cases with disease progression after an initial tumor response, either a loss of the respective tumor antigen targeted by CTLs or of the presenting major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele was detected as a mechanism of immune escape under immunization. Based on these observations, cytokines to enhance antigen and MHC class I expression in vivo are being evaluated to prevent immunoselection. Recently, a strategy utilizing spontaneous antibody responses to tumor-associated antigens (SEREX) has led to the identification of a new CT antigen, NY-ESO-1, which is regarded as one of the most immunogenic antigens known today inducing spontaneous immune responses in 50% of patients with NY-ESO-1-expressing cancers. Clinical studies involving antigenic constructs that induce both antibody and CTL responses will show whether these are more effective for immunotherapy of cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A novel screening approach based on insertion-duplication mutagenesis (IDM) was established to efficiently screen for essential genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under laboratory conditions. Small, randomly generated genomic fragments were cloned into a conditionally replicating vector, and the resulting library of single Salmonella clones was grown under permissive conditions. Upon switching to non-permissive temperature, discrimination between lethal and non-lethal insertions following homologous recombination allowed the trapping of genes with essential functions. Further characterization of a total of 498 fragments resulting in such lethal knockout revealed 145 known essential genes and 112 functionally characterized or hypothetical genes not yet shown to encode essential genes, among them three Salmonella-specific genes. The essentiality was demonstrated for a prioritised set of 15 putative indispensable genes by creating conditional lethal phenotypes. The results of this large-scale screening indicate that in rich media, the class of Salmonella genes indispensable for growth is composed of approximately 490 genes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Base metal technology, mainly using Ni electrodes in multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), is now well established. This technology requires a so-called reoxidation treatment after sintering the MLCCs in a reducing atmosphere to guarantee a sufficient electrical reliability. Large numbers of electrodes, and production of physically larger components for high-voltage components, are two technological trends that make the control of the reoxidation process rather difficult. The reoxidation process has been studied to determine oxygen diffusion pathways into commercial MLCCs, using 18O tracer diffusion and finite element calculations. In MLCCs oxygen diffusion mainly occurs along the Ni electrodes. Furthermore, the reoxidation process is mostly controlled by the thermodynamic potential of the Ni/NiO equilibrium in the interior of the capacitor, but it is the short circuit diffusion along the interface of the electrode that controls the kinetics of the oxygen transport into the interior of the capacitor device.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The microstructures of BME-X7R ceramics have been investigated by imaging and analytical TEM. By varying the sintering conditions (pressing, sintering temperature and atmosphere), the microstructure changes drastically, and dislocation loops can be observed. These defects most probably are caused by an ordering of oxygen vacancies in the lattice, and the density appears to be correlated to the oxygen partial pressure applied during the reoxidation step. For pressed and unpressed ceramic foils, a model for different sintering behaviors according to liquid-phase assistance is given that is based on a kinetically determined microstructure rather than thermodynamic equilibrium.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1289
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Seit 70 Jahren diskutiert die deutsche Ärzteschaft über Aufgabenbereich und Stellenwert des praktischen Arztes und als dessen Nachfolger des Arztes für Allgemeinmedizin, ohne dieses Problem definitiv gelöst zu haben. Auch die ärztlichen Organisationen in Gestalt der Ärztekammern, Kassenärztlichen Vereinigungen und der Berufsverbände haben zum Tätigkeitsumfang der Allgemeinmedizin oder des praktischen Arztes völlig kontroverse Positionen. Dies zeigt sich aktuell in einer beim Bundesverfassungsgericht anhängigen Verfassungsbeschwerde, die darauf abzielt, die Erlaubnis zu erhalten, neben der Bezeichnung Arzt für Allgemeinmedizin eine weitere Facharztbezeichnung führen zu dürfen. Das Thema Aufgabengebiet der Allgemeinmedizin hängt untrennbar mit der im Sozialrecht vorgeschriebenen Trennung in einen haus- und fachärztlichen Versorgungsbereich zusammen. Um allen Internistinnen und Internisten die Möglichkeit zu geben, sich mit dieser Problematik systematisch zu beschäftigen, erfolgt nachstehend der Versuch, das Thema umfassend mit allen Facetten darzustellen.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have analysed the expression and distribution of the DNA mismatch repair enzyme hMSH-2 in normal skin and basal cell carcinomas. hMSH-2 protein was investigated immunohistochemically (normal human skin: n=10; basal cell carcinomas: n=16) on frozen sections using a highly sensitive streptavidin–peroxidase technique and a specific mouse monoclonal antibody (clone FE11). In normal human skin, we found nuclear immunoreactivity for hMSH-2 in epidermal keratinocytes of the basal and first 1–3 suprabasal cell layers. All basal cell carcinomas analysed revealed strong nuclear imunoreactivity that was pronounced in peripheral tumour cells and cells of the palisade. Expression of hMSH-2 protein was consistently and strongly upregulated in tumour cells of the carcinomas as compared to adjacent unaffected epidermis or epidermis of normal human skin. Twelve of the sixteen carcinomas analysed revealed no visual correlation in comparing the labelling patterns for hMSH-2 with the labelling pattern for the proliferation marker Ki-67. Our findings indicate that (a) hMSH-2 is expressed in human epidermal keratinocytes, predominantly in lower cell layers of the viable epidermis; (b) expression of hMSH-2 protein is strongly upregulated in basal cell carcinomas as compared to unaffected epidermis; (c) the level of hMSH-2 proteins in the carcinomas is not exclusively regulated by the proliferative activity of these tumour cells; (d) inactivating mutations of the hMSH-2 gene may in the carcinomas not be involved in the carcinogenesis or microsatellite instability secondary to replication errors; (e) expression of hMSH-2 may be of importance for the genetic stability of basal cell carcinomas in vivo.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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