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  • American Chemical Society  (4,968)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (327)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: This double-blind, multicenter study compared the efficacy and tolerability of tolterodine (Pharmacia, Los Angeles, USA) with that of oxybutynin (Alza, Palo Alto, USA) in Asian patients with overactive bladder. Methods: Two-hundred-and-twenty-eight adults with overactive bladder symptoms were randomized to receive tolterodine 2 mg twice daily (bid) (n = 112) or oxybutynin 5 mg bid (n = 116). After 8 weeks’ treatment, changes in micturition diary variables, patients’ perception of treatment benefit, and tolerability endpoints were determined. Results: The mean (± SD) number of micturitions/24 h decreased by 2.6 ± 2.9 (−21%) with tolterodine and 1.8 ± 4.2 (−15%) with oxybutynin (both P = 0.0001 vs baseline). The mean number of incontinence episodes/24 h decreased by 2.2 ± 2.3 (−85%) in the tolterodine group and by 1.4 ± 1.8 (−58%) in the oxybutynin group (both P = 0.0001 vs baseline). Patient perception of treatment benefit was over 70% in each treatment group. Adverse events were significantly lower in the tolterodine group compared with oxybutynin-treated patients (55% vs 82%; P = 0.001). Dry mouth was reported by significantly fewer patients on tolterodine, compared with oxybutynin (35% vs 63%; P = 0.001) and withdrawals due to adverse events were lower in the tolterodine group than with those treated with oxybutynin (10% vs 16%). There were no safety concerns. Conclusions: Tolterodine 2 mg bid is equally or more effective than oxybutynin 5 mg bid in the treatment of Asian patients with overactive bladder, and shows significantly better tolerability. This may enhance compliance during long-term treatment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-07-02
    Description: Graphene produced by exfoliation has not been able to provide an ideal graphene with performance comparable to that predicted by theory, and structural and/or electronic defects have been proposed as one cause of reduced performance. We report the observation of domains on exfoliated monolayer graphene that differ by their friction characteristics, as measured by friction force microscopy. Angle-dependent scanning revealed friction anisotropy with a periodicity of 180 degrees on each friction domain. The friction anisotropy decreased as the applied load increased. We propose that the domains arise from ripple distortions that give rise to anisotropic friction in each domain as a result of the anisotropic puckering of the graphene.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Choi, Jin Sik -- Kim, Jin-Soo -- Byun, Ik-Su -- Lee, Duk Hyun -- Lee, Mi Jung -- Park, Bae Ho -- Lee, Changgu -- Yoon, Duhee -- Cheong, Hyeonsik -- Lee, Ki Ho -- Son, Young-Woo -- Park, Jeong Young -- Salmeron, Miquel -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jul 29;333(6042):607-10. doi: 10.1126/science.1207110. Epub 2011 Jun 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, Department of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21719640" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: We investigated changes in zinc concentrations in serum and prostatic tissue after an intraprostatic injection of zinc, and compared two forms of zinc delivery: solution and liposome.Methods: Ninety-six male Wistar rats were used in the study (24 controls, 72 test rats). The test animals were randomly divided into two groups and were injected intraprostatically with 2 mL of 0.04 mol/L zinc sulfate according to the form of zinc delivery. Nine rats in each test group were sacrificed 1 day, 7, 14 and 28 days after injection, and 24 normal rats were injected intraprostatically with 2 mL of distilled water as controls. Serum and prostatic zinc concentrations of each group were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Blood chemistries, routine urinalysis, urine culture and histopathologic examination were also performed.Results: Serum zinc concentrations did not change significantly after the intraprostatic injection of zinc. Prostatic zinc concentrations were found to be significantly greater (P 〈 0.05) in zinc-injected groups than in the control group. The intraprostatic injection of zinc solution and zinc liposome increased zinc levels in both ventral and dorsolateral lobes significantly. Prostatic zinc levels increased progressively following injection, reaching a peak level in 7 days and maintaining a high value throughout the experimental period. The prostatic zinc level of the 1-day zinc liposome group was higher than that of the 1-day zinc solution group, while no significant difference was observed between the solution and liposome group in 7, 14, 28 days. No abnormal findings were observed in any of the laboratory and histopathologic examinations; however, an acute inflammatory response was observed in the 1-day groups.Conclusion: These findings suggest that an intraprostatic injection of zinc in normal rats increases and maintains the prostatic zinc level for at least 4 weeks without causing any systemic or local toxicities. These findings suggest the potentially important clinical applicability of local zinc to the treatment of chronic prostatitis.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Calcium regulation has been reported to be associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy. Thus, changes in Ca2+ uptake induced by ATP, an important regulator of Ca2+ uptake, in the diabetic condition and related signal pathways were examined in primary cultures of rabbit renal proximal tubule cells (PTC).2. Under low (5 mmol/L) glucose conditions, 10−4 mol/L ATP inhibited Ca2+ uptake early on (〈 30 min), whereas Ca2+ uptake was stimulated at later time points (〉 2 h). However, under high (25 mmol/L) glucose conditions, ATP stimulated both the early and late uptake of Ca2+.3. The adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ 22536, the protein kinase (PK) A inhibitor PKI amide 14–22, Rp-cAMP, staurosporine, bisindolylmaleimide I and H-7 (PKC inhibitors) blocked the change in ATP effect on Ca2+ uptake in the presence of 25 mmol/L glucose. However, none one of these drugs blocked the effect of ATP on Ca2+ uptake in the presence of 5 mmol/L.4. At 25 mmol/L, glucose increased cAMP content and PKC activity, whereas ATP had no effect on either parameter.5. In conclusion, high glucose levels alter ATP-induced Ca2+ uptake via cAMP and PKC pathways in the PTC.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY:  Chinese herb nephropathy contains a variety of clinical features of progressive renal failure (indicated by studies conducted in Belgium) to the variant type of Fanconi's syndrome. Fanconi's syndrome has mostly been reported in Asian countries, and is characterized by proximal tubular dysfunction and slower progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD); it also often revealed a reversible clinical course. We describe a 43-year-old woman who presented with polyuria and polydipsia caused by Fanconi's syndrome. The cause of Fanconi's syndrome was not identified because the patient denied the intake of the Chinese herbal mixture at first. Fanconi's syndrome seemed to be reversible in its early stage, but it rapidly progressed to renal failure after 3 months, despite the interruption of Chinese mixture use. A renal biopsy revealed typical findings of aristolochic acid-induced nephropathy. Aristolochic acids were also detected in the Chinese herbs that were consumed. This case highlights the variety of the clinical spectrum of aristolochic acid induced nephropathy (AAN). We emphasize that AAN should be suspected in all patients with Fanconi's syndrome, even if patients deny the intake of any Chinese herbal preparation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Background:  Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is the most common urological disease in adult men. Antibiotic therapy is the gold standard of treatment. However, long-term therapy resulted in many side-effects and bacterial resistance. Because of these reasons, we need new treatment modality that could replace traditional antibiotic therapy. Catechin, an extract of green tea, has antimicrobial effect against various bacteria and synergy effect to antibiotics. We evaluate the synergistic effects of catechin on the treatment of CBP in an animal model.Methods:  An experimental CBP model was induced in 70 male Wistar rats by instillation of 0.2 mL bacterial suspension (E-coli Z17, O2:K1:H-) containing 1 × 108 CFU/mL into the prostatic urethra. Microbiologically and histologically proven CBP model was demonstrated in 58.6% (41 of 70) of the rats after 4 weeks of bacterial instillation. The 41 rats demonstrating CBP were randomly divided into four groups; the control, catechin, ciprofloxacin and catechin with ciprofloxacin groups. All drug treatments were conducted over a period of 2 weeks. After treatment, the results were analyzed with microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate and urine samples to compare each group.Results:  Microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate and urine samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth and improved inflammatory responses in all three experimental groups compared with the control group. The catechin group showed coherent trends of decrease in bacterial growth and improvements in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group, but not to a statistically significant degree (P 〉 0.05). However, the ciprofloxacin and catechin with ciprofloxacin groups showed statistically significant decreases in bacterial growth and improvements in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group (P 〈 0.05). The catechin with ciprofloxacin group showed a statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvements in prostatic inflammation compared with the ciprofloxacin group (P 〈 0.05).Conclusions:  These results suggest that catechin may be an effective material in CBP treatment. Particularly, combination treatment of catechin and ciprofloxacin has synergistic effect. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of catechin and ciprofloxacin may be effective in treating CBP with a higher success rate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Cystic testicular masses have been considered rare but due to advances in ultrasonographic technologies their incidence has risen. Many testicular cystic masses are benign but there is a chance of malignancy. Psammoma bodies are found in various malignancies that occur in the genital tract of women but rarely in men. We report a case of testicular tunica albuginea cyst with psammoma bodies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 50 (1978), S. 255-258 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1520-5134
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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