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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (7)
  • Blackwell Science Ltd  (1)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: Rapid advances in DNA synthesis techniques have made it possible to engineer viruses, biochemical pathways and assemble bacterial genomes. Here, we report the synthesis of a functional 272,871-base pair designer eukaryotic chromosome, synIII, which is based on the 316,617-base pair native Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III. Changes to synIII include TAG/TAA stop-codon replacements, deletion of subtelomeric regions, introns, transfer RNAs, transposons, and silent mating loci as well as insertion of loxPsym sites to enable genome scrambling. SynIII is functional in S. cerevisiae. Scrambling of the chromosome in a heterozygous diploid reveals a large increase in a-mater derivatives resulting from loss of the MATalpha allele on synIII. The complete design and synthesis of synIII establishes S. cerevisiae as the basis for designer eukaryotic genome biology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4033833/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4033833/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Annaluru, Narayana -- Muller, Heloise -- Mitchell, Leslie A -- Ramalingam, Sivaprakash -- Stracquadanio, Giovanni -- Richardson, Sarah M -- Dymond, Jessica S -- Kuang, Zheng -- Scheifele, Lisa Z -- Cooper, Eric M -- Cai, Yizhi -- Zeller, Karen -- Agmon, Neta -- Han, Jeffrey S -- Hadjithomas, Michalis -- Tullman, Jennifer -- Caravelli, Katrina -- Cirelli, Kimberly -- Guo, Zheyuan -- London, Viktoriya -- Yeluru, Apurva -- Murugan, Sindurathy -- Kandavelou, Karthikeyan -- Agier, Nicolas -- Fischer, Gilles -- Yang, Kun -- Martin, J Andrew -- Bilgel, Murat -- Bohutski, Pavlo -- Boulier, Kristin M -- Capaldo, Brian J -- Chang, Joy -- Charoen, Kristie -- Choi, Woo Jin -- Deng, Peter -- DiCarlo, James E -- Doong, Judy -- Dunn, Jessilyn -- Feinberg, Jason I -- Fernandez, Christopher -- Floria, Charlotte E -- Gladowski, David -- Hadidi, Pasha -- Ishizuka, Isabel -- Jabbari, Javaneh -- Lau, Calvin Y L -- Lee, Pablo A -- Li, Sean -- Lin, Denise -- Linder, Matthias E -- Ling, Jonathan -- Liu, Jaime -- Liu, Jonathan -- London, Mariya -- Ma, Henry -- Mao, Jessica -- McDade, Jessica E -- McMillan, Alexandra -- Moore, Aaron M -- Oh, Won Chan -- Ouyang, Yu -- Patel, Ruchi -- Paul, Marina -- Paulsen, Laura C -- Qiu, Judy -- Rhee, Alex -- Rubashkin, Matthew G -- Soh, Ina Y -- Sotuyo, Nathaniel E -- Srinivas, Venkatesh -- Suarez, Allison -- Wong, Andy -- Wong, Remus -- Xie, Wei Rose -- Xu, Yijie -- Yu, Allen T -- Koszul, Romain -- Bader, Joel S -- Boeke, Jef D -- Chandrasegaran, Srinivasan -- 092076/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- GM077291/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM077291/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM090192/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 4;344(6179):55-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1249252. Epub 2014 Mar 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University (JHU) School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24674868" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; *Chromosomes, Fungal/genetics/metabolism ; DNA, Fungal/genetics ; Genes, Fungal ; Genetic Fitness ; Genome, Fungal ; Genomic Instability ; Introns ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; RNA, Fungal/genetics ; RNA, Transfer/genetics ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/cytology/*genetics/physiology ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sequence Deletion ; Synthetic Biology/*methods ; Transformation, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-07-19
    Description: Gradient metasurfaces are two-dimensional optical elements capable of manipulating light by imparting local, space-variant phase changes on an incident electromagnetic wave. These surfaces have thus far been constructed from nanometallic optical antennas, and high diffraction efficiencies have been limited to operation in reflection mode. We describe the experimental realization and operation of dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements capable of also achieving high efficiencies in transmission mode in the visible spectrum. Ultrathin gratings, lenses, and axicons have been realized by patterning a 100-nanometer-thick Si layer into a dense arrangement of Si nanobeam antennas. The use of semiconductors can broaden the general applicability of gradient metasurfaces, as they offer facile integration with electronics and can be realized by mature semiconductor fabrication technologies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lin, Dianmin -- Fan, Pengyu -- Hasman, Erez -- Brongersma, Mark L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jul 18;345(6194):298-302. doi: 10.1126/science.1253213.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, 476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Micro and Nanooptics Laboratory, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel. ; Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, 476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. brongersma@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25035488" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2013-05-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lin, C D -- Chu, Wei-Chun -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 May 10;340(6133):694-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1238396.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. cdlin@phys.ksu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23661749" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Overcoming envelope metastability is crucial to trimer-based HIV-1 vaccine design. Here, we present a coherent vaccine strategy by minimizing metastability. For 10 strains across five clades, we demonstrate that the gp41 ectodomain (gp41 ECTO ) is the main source of envelope metastability by replacing wild-type gp41 ECTO with BG505 gp41 ECTO of the uncleaved prefusion-optimized (UFO) design. These gp41 ECTO -swapped trimers can be produced in CHO cells with high yield and high purity. The crystal structure of a gp41 ECTO -swapped trimer elucidates how a neutralization-resistant tier 3 virus evades antibody recognition of the V2 apex. UFO trimers of transmitted/founder viruses and UFO trimers containing a consensus-based ancestral gp41 ECTO suggest an evolutionary root of metastability. The gp41 ECTO -stabilized trimers can be readily displayed on 24- and 60-meric nanoparticles, with incorporation of additional T cell help illustrated for a hyperstable 60-mer, I3-01. In mice and rabbits, these gp140 nanoparticles induced tier 2 neutralizing antibody responses more effectively than soluble trimers.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-12-12
    Description: Mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis are defined on the basis of relatively few proteins acting on DNA, yet the identities and functions of all proteins required are unknown. Here, we identify the network that underlies mutagenic repair of DNA breaks in stressed Escherichia coli and define functions for much of it. Using a comprehensive screen, we identified a network of 〉/=93 genes that function in mutation. Most operate upstream of activation of three required stress responses (RpoS, RpoE, and SOS, key network hubs), apparently sensing stress. The results reveal how a network integrates mutagenic repair into the biology of the cell, show specific pathways of environmental sensing, demonstrate the centrality of stress responses, and imply that these responses are attractive as potential drug targets for blocking the evolution of pathogens.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3782309/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3782309/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Al Mamun, Abu Amar M -- Lombardo, Mary-Jane -- Shee, Chandan -- Lisewski, Andreas M -- Gonzalez, Caleb -- Lin, Dongxu -- Nehring, Ralf B -- Saint-Ruf, Claude -- Gibson, Janet L -- Frisch, Ryan L -- Lichtarge, Olivier -- Hastings, P J -- Rosenberg, Susan M -- DP1 CA174424/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DP1-CA174424/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F32-GM095267/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- F32-GM19909/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM66099/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM79656/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM053158/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM079656/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM53158/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM64022/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Dec 7;338(6112):1344-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1226683.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030-3411, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23224554" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins/genetics ; *DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded ; DNA Repair/*genetics ; Escherichia coli/*genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; *Gene Regulatory Networks ; Mutagenesis/genetics ; SOS Response (Genetics)/genetics ; Sigma Factor/genetics ; Stress, Physiological/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  Alopecia areata (AA) is hypothesized to be an organ-specific autoimmune disease with genetic predisposition and an environmental trigger. There are few clinical data in Asians.Objectives  To describe the genetic epidemiological features of AA patients in China and to determine the possible genetic model for AA.Methods  Data for 1032 patients with AA were obtained by questionnaire in the Institute of Dermatology of Anhui Medical University in China from 2001 to 2003. Complex segregation analysis and heritability analysis were performed using Falconer's method, EPI INFO 6·0 and SAGE-REGTL programs.Results  In total, 1032 AA patients (male/female ratio 1·1 : 1) were enrolled, representing 0·94% of the total number of cases seen in our outpatient clinic during that time. The mean ± SD age of onset was 28·98 ± 13·43 years. The difference between the mean age of onset in males and females was not significant. Most patients (82·6%) experienced their first episode of AA within the first four decades of life. A positive family history of AA was obtained in 87 patients (8·4%). The prevalence of AA in first-, second- and third-degree relatives of the proband with AA was 1·6%, 0·19% and 0·03%, respectively. These figures were higher than those in controls. A greater severity and longer duration of AA were seen in the early onset group than in the late-onset group. The early onset group also had more affected first- and second-degree relatives. The heritability of AA in first-, second- and third-degree relatives was 47·16%, 42·53% and 22·29%, respectively. Based on the REGTL results, the best model was a polygenic additive model for AA.Conclusions  The effect of genetic factors is strong in AA, but environmental factors such as infection and psychological stress may still play an important role. Our findings on the genetics of AA are consistent with a polygenic additive mode of inheritance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-11-17
    Description: One of the key pathological features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the existence of extracellular deposition of amyloid plaques formed with misfolded amyloid-β (Aβ). The conformational change of proteins leads to enriched contents of β sheets, resulting in remarkable changes of vibrational spectra, especially the spectral shifts of the amide I mode. Here, we applied stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy to image amyloid plaques in the brain tissue of an AD mouse model. We have demonstrated the capability of SRS microscopy as a rapid, label-free imaging modality to differentiate misfolded from normal proteins based on the blue shift (~10 cm –1 ) of amide I SRS spectra. Furthermore, SRS imaging of Aβ plaques was verified by antibody staining of frozen thin sections and fluorescence imaging of fresh tissues. Our method may provide a new approach for studies of AD pathology, as well as other neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein misfolding.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-23
    Description: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered to be one of the most important energy storage technologies. As the energy density of batteries increases, battery safety becomes even more critical if the energy is released unintentionally. Accidents related to fires and explosions of LIBs occur frequently worldwide. Some have caused serious threats to human life and health and have led to numerous product recalls by manufacturers. These incidents are reminders that safety is a prerequisite for batteries, and serious issues need to be resolved before the future application of high-energy battery systems. This Review aims to summarize the fundamentals of the origins of LIB safety issues and highlight recent key progress in materials design to improve LIB safety. We anticipate that this Review will inspire further improvement in battery safety, especially for emerging LIBs with high-energy density.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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