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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-09-07
    Description: An avian-origin human-infecting influenza (H7N9) virus was recently identified in China. We have evaluated the viral hemagglutinin (HA) receptor-binding properties of two human H7N9 isolates, A/Shanghai/1/2013 (SH-H7N9) (containing the avian-signature residue Gln(226)) and A/Anhui/1/2013 (AH-H7N9) (containing the mammalian-signature residue Leu(226)). We found that SH-H7N9 HA preferentially binds the avian receptor analog, whereas AH-H7N9 HA binds both avian and human receptor analogs. Furthermore, an AH-H7N9 mutant HA (Leu(226) --〉 Gln) was found to exhibit dual receptor-binding property, indicating that other amino acid substitutions contribute to the receptor-binding switch. The structures of SH-H7N9 HA, AH-H7N9 HA, and its mutant in complex with either avian or human receptor analogs show how AH-H7N9 can bind human receptors while still retaining the avian receptor-binding property.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shi, Yi -- Zhang, Wei -- Wang, Fei -- Qi, Jianxun -- Wu, Ying -- Song, Hao -- Gao, Feng -- Bi, Yuhai -- Zhang, Yanfang -- Fan, Zheng -- Qin, Chengfeng -- Sun, Honglei -- Liu, Jinhua -- Haywood, Joel -- Liu, Wenjun -- Gong, Weimin -- Wang, Dayan -- Shu, Yuelong -- Wang, Yu -- Yan, Jinghua -- Gao, George F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Oct 11;342(6155):243-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1242917. Epub 2013 Sep 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Research Network of Immunity and Health, Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24009358" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Birds ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Glycine/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/*chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Influenza A virus/*metabolism ; Influenza in Birds/*virology ; Influenza, Human/*virology ; Protein Conformation ; Receptors, Cell Surface/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-04-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gao, George F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 18;344(6181):235. doi: 10.1126/science.1254664.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉George F. Gao is director of the CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology at the Institute for Microbiology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; vice president of the Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Beijing; president of the Chinese Society for Virology, Beijing; and deputy director general of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24744345" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; China/epidemiology ; *Commerce ; Humans ; *Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/genetics/isolation & purification ; *Influenza A virus/genetics/isolation & purification ; Influenza in Birds/*epidemiology/transmission ; Influenza, Human/epidemiology/*prevention & control/*transmission/virology ; *Poultry/virology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gao, George F -- Feng, Yong -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 31;346(6209):666. doi: 10.1126/science.346.6209.666.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉George F. Gao is deputy director general of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Yong Feng is director of the Division of African Affairs in the Department of International Cooperation at China's National Health and Family Planning Commission.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25359978" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biomedical Research/*manpower ; *Career Choice ; *Ebolavirus ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology/*prevention & control ; Humans ; Laboratory Personnel ; Sierra Leone/epidemiology ; Travel
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: Oncolytic virotherapy is an emerging treatment modality that uses replication-competent viruses to destroy cancer cells. M1 is a naturally occurring alphavirus ( Togaviridae ) which shows potent oncolytic activities against many cancers. Accumulation of unfolded proteins during virus replication leads to a transcriptional/translational response known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), which might counteract the antitumor effect of the oncolytic virus. In this report, we show that either pharmacological or biological inhibition of IRE1α or PERK, but not ATF6, substantially increases the oncolytic effects of the M1 virus. Moreover, inhibition of IRE1α blocks M1 virus-induced autophagy, which restricts the antitumor effects of the M1 virus through degradation of viral protein, in glioma cells. In addition, IRE1α suppression significantly increases the oncolytic effect of M1 virus in an orthotopic glioma model. From a molecular pathology study, we found that IRE1α is expressed at lower levels in higher-grade gliomas, suggesting greater antitumor efficacy of the oncolytic virus M1. Taken together, these findings illustrate a defensive mechanism of glioma cells against the oncolytic virus M1 and identify possible approaches to enhance the oncolytic viral protein accumulation and the subsequent lysis of tumor cells. IMPORTANCE Although oncolytic virotherapy is showing great promise in clinical applications, not all patients are benefiting. Identifying inhibitory signals in refractory cancer cells for each oncolytic virus would provide a good chance to increase the therapeutic effect. Here we describe that infection with the oncolytic virus M1 triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) and subsequent autophagy, while blocking the UPR-autophagy axis significantly potentiates the antitumor efficacy of M1 in vitro and in vivo . A survey of cancer tissue banks revealed that IRE1α, a key element in the UPR pathway, is commonly downregulated in higher-grade human gliomas, suggesting favorable prospects for the application of M1. Our work provides a potential predictor and target for enhancement of the therapeutic effectiveness of the M1 virus. We predict that the mechanism-based combination therapy will promote cancer virotherapy in the future.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-12-21
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-08-01
    Description: An HIV-1 DNA prime vaccine, with a recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) boost, failed to protect from HIV-1 acquisition. We studied the nature of the vaccine-induced antibody (Ab) response to HIV-1 envelope (Env). HIV-1-reactive plasma Ab titers were higher to Env gp41 than to gp120, and repertoire analysis demonstrated that 93% of HIV-1-reactive Abs from memory B cells responded to Env gp41. Vaccine-induced gp41-reactive monoclonal antibodies were non-neutralizing and frequently polyreactive with host and environmental antigens, including intestinal microbiota (IM). Next-generation sequencing of an immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region repertoire before vaccination revealed an Env-IM cross-reactive Ab that was clonally related to a subsequent vaccine-induced gp41-reactive Ab. Thus, HIV-1 Env DNA-rAd5 vaccine induced a dominant IM-polyreactive, non-neutralizing gp41-reactive Ab repertoire response that was associated with no vaccine efficacy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4562404/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4562404/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Williams, Wilton B -- Liao, Hua-Xin -- Moody, M Anthony -- Kepler, Thomas B -- Alam, S Munir -- Gao, Feng -- Wiehe, Kevin -- Trama, Ashley M -- Jones, Kathryn -- Zhang, Ruijun -- Song, Hongshuo -- Marshall, Dawn J -- Whitesides, John F -- Sawatzki, Kaitlin -- Hua, Axin -- Liu, Pinghuang -- Tay, Matthew Z -- Seaton, Kelly E -- Shen, Xiaoying -- Foulger, Andrew -- Lloyd, Krissey E -- Parks, Robert -- Pollara, Justin -- Ferrari, Guido -- Yu, Jae-Sung -- Vandergrift, Nathan -- Montefiori, David C -- Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E -- Hammer, Scott -- Karuna, Shelly -- Gilbert, Peter -- Grove, Doug -- Grunenberg, Nicole -- McElrath, M Juliana -- Mascola, John R -- Koup, Richard A -- Corey, Lawrence -- Nabel, Gary J -- Morgan, Cecilia -- Churchyard, Gavin -- Maenza, Janine -- Keefer, Michael -- Graham, Barney S -- Baden, Lindsey R -- Tomaras, Georgia D -- Haynes, Barton F -- P30 AI064518/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30-AI-64518/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI069412/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI068614/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI068618/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI068635/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI069412/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI069470/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI069481/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI069511/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100645/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1AI068618/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Aug 14;349(6249):aab1253. doi: 10.1126/science.aab1253. Epub 2015 Jul 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA. barton.haynes@duke.edu wilton.williams@duke.edu. ; Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA. ; Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. ; Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA. ; The Statistical Center for HIV/AIDS Research and Prevention (SCHARP), Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. ; The Aurum Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa. ; University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY, USA. ; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229114" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/*immunology ; Adenoviridae ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics/immunology ; Antibody Formation ; Cross Reactions ; HIV Antibodies/genetics/*immunology ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120/immunology ; HIV Envelope Protein gp41/genetics/*immunology ; HIV-1/*immunology ; Humans ; Immunity ; Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/genetics/immunology ; Immunoglobulin Variable Region/genetics/immunology ; Immunologic Memory ; Intestines/microbiology ; Microbiota/*immunology ; Vaccines, DNA/*immunology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-05-04
    Description: Recent studies have identified several mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein that allow the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A virus to transmit between mammals by airborne route. Here, we determined the complex structures of wild-type and mutant HAs derived from an Indonesia H5N1 virus bound to either avian or human receptor sialic acid analogs. A cis/trans conformational change in the glycosidic linkage of the receptor analog was observed, which explains how the H5N1 virus alters its receptor-binding preference. Furthermore, the mutant HA possessed low affinities for both avian and human receptors. Our findings provide a structural and biophysical basis for the H5N1 adaptation to acquire human, but maintain avian, receptor-binding properties.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Wei -- Shi, Yi -- Lu, Xishan -- Shu, Yuelong -- Qi, Jianxun -- Gao, George F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jun 21;340(6139):1463-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1236787. Epub 2013 May 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23641058" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Binding Sites ; Birds ; Carbohydrate Conformation ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype ; Models, Molecular ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Mutation ; Oligosaccharides/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Stability ; Receptors, Cell Surface/chemistry/*metabolism ; Receptors, Virus/chemistry/*metabolism ; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-08-01
    Description: Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a highly neurovirulent coronavirus and causes neurological dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS), but the neuropathological mechanism of PHEV remains poorly understood. We report that Unc51-like kinase 1 (Ulk1/Unc51.1) is a pivotal regulator of PHEV-induced neurological disorders and functions to selectively control the initiation of nerve growth factor (NGF)/TrkA endosome trafficking. We first identified the function of Ulk1 by histopathologic evaluation in a PHEV-infected mouse model in which neuronal loss was accompanied by the suppression of Ulk1 expression. Morphogenesis assessments in the primary cortical neurons revealed that overexpression or mutations of Ulk1 modulated neurite outgrowth, collateral sprouting, and endosomal transport. Likewise, Ulk1 expression was decreased following PHEV infection, suggesting that there was a correlation between the neurodegeneration and functional Ulk1 deficiency. We then showed that Ulk1 forms a multiprotein complex with TrkA and the early endosome marker Rab5 and that Ulk1 defects lead to either blocking of NGF/TrkA endocytosis or premature degradation of pTrkA via constitutive activation of the Rab5 GTPase. Further investigation determined that the ectopic expression of Rab5 mutants induces aberrant endosomal accumulation of activated pTrkA, proving that targeting of Ulk1-TrkA-NGF signaling to the retrograde transport route in the neurodegenerative process that underlies PHEV infection is dependent on Rab5 GTPase activity. Therefore, we described a long-distance signaling mechanism of PHEV-driven deficits in neurons and suggested that such Ulk1 repression may result in limited NGF/TrkA retrograde signaling within activated Rab5 endosomes, explaining the progressive failure of neurite outgrowth and survival. IMPORTANCE Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a neurotropic coronavirus and targets neurons in the nervous system for proliferation, frequently leaving behind grievous neurodegeneration. Structural plasticity disorders occur in the axons, dendrites, and dendritic spines of PHEV-infected neurons, and dysfunction of this neural process may contribute to neurologic pathologies, but the mechanisms remain undetermined. Further understanding of the neurological manifestations underlying PHEV infection in the CNS may provide insights into both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases that may be conducive to targeted approaches for treatment. The significance of our research is in identifying an Ulk1-related neurodegenerative mechanism, focusing on the regulatory functions of Ulk1 in the transport of long-distance trophic signaling endosomes, thereby explaining the progressive failure of neurite outgrowth and survival associated with PHEV aggression. This is the first report to define a mechanistic link between alterations in signaling from endocytic pathways and the neuropathogenesis of PHEV-induced CNS disease.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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