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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-08-24
    Description: Amoroso et al . demonstrate the power of our data by estimating the high-resolution trawling footprint on seafloor habitat. Yet we argue that a coarser grid is required to understand full ecosystem impacts. Vessel tracking data allow us to estimate the footprint of human activities across a variety of scales, and the proper scale depends on the specific impact being investigated.
    Keywords: Ecology, Techniques
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Although fishing is one of the most widespread activities by which humans harvest natural resources, its global footprint is poorly understood and has never been directly quantified. We processed 22 billion automatic identification system messages and tracked 〉70,000 industrial fishing vessels from 2012 to 2016, creating a global dynamic footprint of fishing effort with spatial and temporal resolution two to three orders of magnitude higher than for previous data sets. Our data show that industrial fishing occurs in 〉55% of ocean area and has a spatial extent more than four times that of agriculture. We find that global patterns of fishing have surprisingly low sensitivity to short-term economic and environmental variation and a strong response to cultural and political events such as holidays and closures.
    Keywords: Ecology, Geochemistry, Geophysics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2012-03-01
    Description: Female rodents are known to terminate pregnancies after exposure to unfamiliar males ("Bruce effect"). Although laboratory support abounds, direct evidence for a Bruce effect under natural conditions is lacking. Here, we report a strong Bruce effect in a wild primate, the gelada (Theropithecus gelada). Female geladas terminate 80% of pregnancies in the weeks after a dominant male is replaced. Further, data on interbirth intervals suggest that pregnancy termination offers fitness benefits for females whose offspring would otherwise be susceptible to infanticide. Taken together, data support the hypothesis that the Bruce effect can be an adaptive strategy for females.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Roberts, Eila K -- Lu, Amy -- Bergman, Thore J -- Beehner, Jacinta C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Mar 9;335(6073):1222-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1213600. Epub 2012 Feb 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22362878" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Wild ; *Behavior, Animal ; Birth Rate ; Estrogens/analysis ; Ethiopia ; Feces/chemistry ; Female ; *Genetic Fitness ; Gestational Age ; Male ; Pregnancy ; Pregnancy Outcome ; *Pregnancy, Animal ; Sexual Behavior, Animal ; Social Behavior ; *Social Dominance ; *Theropithecus/physiology/psychology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-02-09
    Description: Piperidines are prevalent in natural products and pharmaceutical agents and are important synthetic targets for drug discovery and development. We report on a methodology that provides highly substituted piperidine derivatives with regiochemistry selectively tunable by varying the strength of acid used in the reaction. Readily available starting materials are first converted to dihydropyridines via a cascade reaction initiated by rhodium-catalyzed carbon-hydrogen bond activation. Subsequent divergent regio- and diastereoselective protonation of the dihydropyridines under either kinetic or thermodynamic control provides two distinct iminium ion intermediates that then undergo highly diastereoselective nucleophilic additions. X-ray structural characterization of both the kinetically and thermodynamically favored iminium ions along with density functional theory calculations provide a theoretical underpinning for the high selectivities achieved for the reaction sequences.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3809088/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3809088/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Duttwyler, Simon -- Chen, Shuming -- Takase, Michael K -- Wiberg, Kenneth B -- Bergman, Robert G -- Ellman, Jonathan A -- GM069559/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM069559/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Feb 8;339(6120):678-82. doi: 10.1126/science.1230704.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23393259" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acids ; Catalysis ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Dihydropyridines/chemistry ; Heterocyclic Compounds/*chemical synthesis/chemistry ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Kinetics ; Molecular Conformation ; Molecular Structure ; Nitrogen/*chemistry ; Piperidines/*chemical synthesis/*chemistry ; *Protons ; Rhodium ; Stereoisomerism ; Thermodynamics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-12-05
    Description: Whereas the cellular basis of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow has been characterized, the nature of the fetal liver niche is not yet elucidated. We show that Nestin(+)NG2(+) pericytes associate with portal vessels, forming a niche promoting HSC expansion. Nestin(+)NG2(+) cells and HSCs scale during development with the fractal branching patterns of portal vessels, tributaries of the umbilical vein. After closure of the umbilical inlet at birth, portal vessels undergo a transition from Neuropilin-1(+)Ephrin-B2(+) artery to EphB4(+) vein phenotype, associated with a loss of periportal Nestin(+)NG2(+) cells and emigration of HSCs away from portal vessels. These data support a model in which HSCs are titrated against a periportal vascular niche with a fractal-like organization enabled by placental circulation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4706788/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4706788/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Khan, Jalal A -- Mendelson, Avital -- Kunisaki, Yuya -- Birbrair, Alexander -- Kou, Yan -- Arnal-Estape, Anna -- Pinho, Sandra -- Ciero, Paul -- Nakahara, Fumio -- Ma'ayan, Avi -- Bergman, Aviv -- Merad, Miriam -- Frenette, Paul S -- CA164468/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DA033788/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DK056638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F30 943257/PHS HHS/ -- F32 HL123224/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL069438/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL097700/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA173861/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA190400/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA033788/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK056638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL069438/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL116340/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01GM098316/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 063754/PHS HHS/ -- U54 HL127624/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U54CA189201/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54HL127624/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):176-80. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0084. Epub 2015 Dec 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. ; Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. ; Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. ; Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. ; Department of Systems and Computational Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. ; Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. ; Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. paul.frenette@einstein.yu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26634440" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens/analysis ; Ephrin-B2/analysis ; Female ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*physiology ; Liver/blood supply/*embryology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Nestin/analysis ; Neuropilin-1/analysis ; Placental Circulation ; Portal System/chemistry/*embryology ; Pregnancy ; Proteoglycans/analysis ; Receptor, EphB4/analysis ; Stem Cell Niche/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: A self-assembled supramolecular complex is reported to catalyze alkyl-alkyl reductive elimination from high-valent transition metal complexes [such as gold(III) and platinum(IV)], the central bond-forming elementary step in many catalytic processes. The catalytic microenvironment of the supramolecular assembly acts as a functional enzyme mimic, applying the concepts of enzymatic catalysis to a reactivity manifold not represented in biology. Kinetic experiments delineate a Michaelis-Menten-type mechanism, with measured rate accelerations (k(cat)/k(uncat)) up to 1.9 x 10(7) (here k(cat) and k(uncat) are the Michaelis-Menten enzymatic rate constant and observed uncatalyzed rate constant, respectively). This modality has further been incorporated into a dual catalytic cross-coupling reaction, which requires both the supramolecular microenvironment catalyst and the transition metal catalyst operating in concert to achieve efficient turnover.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kaphan, David M -- Levin, Mark D -- Bergman, Robert G -- Raymond, Kenneth N -- Toste, F Dean -- R01 GM073932/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1235-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3087. Epub 2015 Dec 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. rbergman@berkeley.edu raymond@socrates.berkeley.edu fdtoste@berkeley.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785485" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McCauley, Douglas J -- Woods, Paul -- Sullivan, Brian -- Bergman, Bjorn -- Jablonicky, Caroline -- Roan, Aaron -- Hirshfield, Michael -- Boerder, Kristina -- Worm, Boris -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1148-50. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5686.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. douglas.mccauley@lifesci.ucsb.edu. ; SkyTruth, Shepherdstown, WV 25443, USA. ; Google, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. ; University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. ; Oceana, Washington, DC 20036, USA. ; Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H4R2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965610" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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