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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-29
    Description: The ultrafast laser excitation of matters leads to nonequilibrium states with complex solid-liquid phase-transition dynamics. We used electron diffraction at mega–electron volt energies to visualize the ultrafast melting of gold on the atomic scale length. For energy densities approaching the irreversible melting regime, we first observed heterogeneous melting on time scales of 100 to 1000 picoseconds, transitioning to homogeneous melting that occurs catastrophically within 10 to 20 picoseconds at higher energy densities. We showed evidence for the heterogeneous coexistence of solid and liquid. We determined the ion and electron temperature evolution and found superheated conditions. Our results constrain the electron-ion coupling rate, determine the Debye temperature, and reveal the melting sensitivity to nucleation seeds.
    Keywords: Physics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: A high concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although LDL-C levels vary among humans and are heritable, the genetic factors affecting LDL-C are not fully characterized. We identified a rare frameshift variant in the LIMA1 (also known as EPLIN or SREBP3 ) gene from a Chinese family of Kazakh ethnicity with inherited low LDL-C and reduced cholesterol absorption. In a mouse model, LIMA1 was mainly expressed in the small intestine and localized on the brush border membrane. LIMA1 bridged NPC1L1, an essential protein for cholesterol absorption, to a transportation complex containing myosin Vb and facilitated cholesterol uptake. Similar to the human phenotype, Lima1 -deficient mice displayed reduced cholesterol absorption and were resistant to diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. Through our study of both mice and humans, we identify LIMA1 as a key protein regulating intestinal cholesterol absorption.
    Keywords: Genetics, Medicine, Diseases
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-12-21
    Keywords: Science and Policy, Sociology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-12-21
    Description: Magnetic reconnection is an energy conversion process that occurs in many astrophysical contexts including Earth’s magnetosphere, where the process can be investigated in situ by spacecraft. On 11 July 2017, the four Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft encountered a reconnection site in Earth’s magnetotail, where reconnection involves symmetric inflow conditions. The electron-scale plasma measurements revealed (i) super-Alfvénic electron jets reaching 15,000 kilometers per second; (ii) electron meandering motion and acceleration by the electric field, producing multiple crescent-shaped structures in the velocity distributions; and (iii) the spatial dimensions of the electron diffusion region with an aspect ratio of 0.1 to 0.2, consistent with fast reconnection. The well-structured multiple layers of electron populations indicate that the dominant electron dynamics are mostly laminar, despite the presence of turbulence near the reconnection site.
    Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Physics, Planetary Science
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-06-18
    Description: Root hairs are single cells that develop by tip growth and are specialized in the absorption of nutrients. Their cell walls are composed of polysaccharides and hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) that include extensins (EXTs) and arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs). Proline hydroxylation, an early posttranslational modification of HRGPs that is catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), defines the subsequent O-glycosylation sites in EXTs (which are mainly arabinosylated) and AGPs (which are mainly arabinogalactosylated). We explored the biological function of P4Hs, arabinosyltransferases, and EXTs in root hair cell growth. Biochemical inhibition or genetic disruption resulted in the blockage of polarized growth in root hairs and reduced arabinosylation of EXTs. Our results demonstrate that correct O-glycosylation on EXTs is essential for cell-wall self-assembly and, hence, root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Velasquez, Silvia M -- Ricardi, Martiniano M -- Dorosz, Javier Gloazzo -- Fernandez, Paula V -- Nadra, Alejandro D -- Pol-Fachin, Laercio -- Egelund, Jack -- Gille, Sascha -- Harholt, Jesper -- Ciancia, Marina -- Verli, Hugo -- Pauly, Markus -- Bacic, Antony -- Olsen, Carl Erik -- Ulvskov, Peter -- Petersen, Bent Larsen -- Somerville, Chris -- Iusem, Norberto D -- Estevez, Jose M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jun 17;332(6036):1401-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1206657.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Instituto de Fisiologia, Biologia Molecular y Neurociencias-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (IFIByNE-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires C1428EGA, Argentina.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21680836" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arabidopsis/genetics/growth & development/*metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Arabinose/metabolism ; Carbohydrate Conformation ; Cell Wall/*metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Genes, Plant ; Glycoproteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Glycosylation ; Glycosyltransferases/genetics/metabolism ; Hydroxylation ; Hydroxyproline/*metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Mutation ; Pentosyltransferases/chemistry/metabolism ; Phenotype ; Plant Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Plant Roots/cytology/*growth & development/metabolism ; Polysaccharides/chemistry ; Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase/genetics/*metabolism ; Proline/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; Protein Structure, Secondary
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-05-10
    Description: Vascular plants appeared ~410 million years ago, then diverged into several lineages of which only two survive: the euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants) and the lycophytes. We report here the genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii (Selaginella), the first nonseed vascular plant genome reported. By comparing gene content in evolutionarily diverse taxa, we found that the transition from a gametophyte- to a sporophyte-dominated life cycle required far fewer new genes than the transition from a nonseed vascular to a flowering plant, whereas secondary metabolic genes expanded extensively and in parallel in the lycophyte and angiosperm lineages. Selaginella differs in posttranscriptional gene regulation, including small RNA regulation of repetitive elements, an absence of the trans-acting small interfering RNA pathway, and extensive RNA editing of organellar genes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166216/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166216/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Banks, Jo Ann -- Nishiyama, Tomoaki -- Hasebe, Mitsuyasu -- Bowman, John L -- Gribskov, Michael -- dePamphilis, Claude -- Albert, Victor A -- Aono, Naoki -- Aoyama, Tsuyoshi -- Ambrose, Barbara A -- Ashton, Neil W -- Axtell, Michael J -- Barker, Elizabeth -- Barker, Michael S -- Bennetzen, Jeffrey L -- Bonawitz, Nicholas D -- Chapple, Clint -- Cheng, Chaoyang -- Correa, Luiz Gustavo Guedes -- Dacre, Michael -- DeBarry, Jeremy -- Dreyer, Ingo -- Elias, Marek -- Engstrom, Eric M -- Estelle, Mark -- Feng, Liang -- Finet, Cedric -- Floyd, Sandra K -- Frommer, Wolf B -- Fujita, Tomomichi -- Gramzow, Lydia -- Gutensohn, Michael -- Harholt, Jesper -- Hattori, Mitsuru -- Heyl, Alexander -- Hirai, Tadayoshi -- Hiwatashi, Yuji -- Ishikawa, Masaki -- Iwata, Mineko -- Karol, Kenneth G -- Koehler, Barbara -- Kolukisaoglu, Uener -- Kubo, Minoru -- Kurata, Tetsuya -- Lalonde, Sylvie -- Li, Kejie -- Li, Ying -- Litt, Amy -- Lyons, Eric -- Manning, Gerard -- Maruyama, Takeshi -- Michael, Todd P -- Mikami, Koji -- Miyazaki, Saori -- Morinaga, Shin-ichi -- Murata, Takashi -- Mueller-Roeber, Bernd -- Nelson, David R -- Obara, Mari -- Oguri, Yasuko -- Olmstead, Richard G -- Onodera, Naoko -- Petersen, Bent Larsen -- Pils, Birgit -- Prigge, Michael -- Rensing, Stefan A -- Riano-Pachon, Diego Mauricio -- Roberts, Alison W -- Sato, Yoshikatsu -- Scheller, Henrik Vibe -- Schulz, Burkhard -- Schulz, Christian -- Shakirov, Eugene V -- Shibagaki, Nakako -- Shinohara, Naoki -- Shippen, Dorothy E -- Sorensen, Iben -- Sotooka, Ryo -- Sugimoto, Nagisa -- Sugita, Mamoru -- Sumikawa, Naomi -- Tanurdzic, Milos -- Theissen, Gunter -- Ulvskov, Peter -- Wakazuki, Sachiko -- Weng, Jing-Ke -- Willats, William W G T -- Wipf, Daniel -- Wolf, Paul G -- Yang, Lixing -- Zimmer, Andreas D -- Zhu, Qihui -- Mitros, Therese -- Hellsten, Uffe -- Loque, Dominique -- Otillar, Robert -- Salamov, Asaf -- Schmutz, Jeremy -- Shapiro, Harris -- Lindquist, Erika -- Lucas, Susan -- Rokhsar, Daniel -- Grigoriev, Igor V -- GM065383/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM84051/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG004164/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM043644/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084051/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084051-01A1/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004164/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004164-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004164-03/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004164-04/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007757/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32-HG00035/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 May 20;332(6032):960-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1203810. Epub 2011 May 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. banksj@purdue.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21551031" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Angiosperms/chemistry/genetics ; *Biological Evolution ; Bryopsida/genetics ; Chlamydomonas/chemistry/genetics ; DNA Transposable Elements ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Genes, Plant ; *Genome, Plant ; MicroRNAs/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Plant Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Proteome/analysis ; RNA Editing ; RNA, Plant/genetics ; Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid ; Selaginellaceae/*genetics/growth & development/metabolism ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-02-12
    Description: Enzymes and synthetic chiral catalysts have found widespread application to produce single enantiomers, but in situ switching of the chiral preference of a catalytic system is very difficult to achieve. Here, we report on a light-driven molecular motor with integrated catalytic functions in which the stepwise change in configuration during a 360 degrees unidirectional rotary cycle governs the catalyst performance both with respect to activity and absolute stereocontrol in an asymmetric transformation. During one full rotary cycle, catalysts are formed that provide either racemic (R,S) or preferentially the R or the S enantiomer of the chiral product of a conjugate addition reaction. This catalytic system demonstrates how different molecular tasks can be performed in a sequential manner, with the sequence controlled by the directionality of a rotary cycle.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Jiaobing -- Feringa, Ben L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Mar 18;331(6023):1429-32. doi: 10.1126/science.1199844. Epub 2011 Feb 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Systems Chemistry, Stratingh Institute for Chemistry and Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, Groningen, Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21310964" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-10-01
    Description: Cardenas et al. (Reports, 25 February 2011, p. 1055) used the presence of Podocarpus pollen and wood to infer 〉/=5 degrees C cooling of Andean forests during Quaternary glacial periods. We show that (i) Podocarpus has a wide elevation range in the Neotropics, and (ii) edaphic factors cannot be discounted as a factor governing its distribution. Paleoecologists should therefore reevaluate Podocarpus as a cool-temperature proxy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Punyasena, Surangi W -- Dalling, James W -- Jaramillo, Carlos -- Turner, Benjamin L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Sep 30;333(6051):1825; author reply 1825. doi: 10.1126/science.1207525.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois, 505 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801-3750, USA. punyasena@life.illinois.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21960612" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Altitude ; *Biodiversity ; *Climate Change ; *Ecosystem ; *Fossils ; *Plants ; *Trees
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-06-02
    Description: Interacting sets of actin assembly factors work together in cells, but the underlying mechanisms have remained obscure. We used triple-color single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to image the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and the formin mDia1 during filament assembly. Complexes consisting of APC, mDia1, and actin monomers initiated actin filament formation, overcoming inhibition by capping protein and profilin. Upon filament polymerization, the complexes separated, with mDia1 moving processively on growing barbed ends while APC remained at the site of nucleation. Thus, the two assembly factors directly interact to initiate filament assembly and then separate but retain independent associations with either end of the growing filament.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3613992/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3613992/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Breitsprecher, Dennis -- Jaiswal, Richa -- Bombardier, Jeffrey P -- Gould, Christopher J -- Gelles, Jeff -- Goode, Bruce L -- GM083137/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM43369/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM81648/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM063691/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081648/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083137/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM098143/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM043369/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 EB009419/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007596/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jun 1;336(6085):1164-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1218062.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22654058" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Actin Cytoskeleton/*metabolism ; Actins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/chemistry/*metabolism ; Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein/chemistry/*metabolism ; Animals ; Microscopy, Fluorescence ; Peptide Fragments/chemistry/metabolism ; Profilins/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs ; Protein Multimerization ; Rabbits
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-03-24
    Description: We investigated the effect of activating a competing, artificially generated, neural representation on encoding of contextual fear memory in mice. We used a c-fos-based transgenic approach to introduce the hM(3)D(q) DREADD receptor (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) into neurons naturally activated by sensory experience. Neural activity could then be specifically and inducibly increased in the hM(3)D(q)-expressing neurons by an exogenous ligand. When an ensemble of neurons for one context (ctxA) was artificially activated during conditioning in a distinct second context (ctxB), mice formed a hybrid memory representation. Reactivation of the artificially stimulated network within the conditioning context was required for retrieval of the memory, and the memory was specific for the spatial pattern of neurons artificially activated during learning. Similar stimulation impaired recall when not part of the initial conditioning.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3956300/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3956300/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Garner, Aleena R -- Rowland, David C -- Hwang, Sang Youl -- Baumgaertel, Karsten -- Roth, Bryan L -- Kentros, Cliff -- Mayford, Mark -- R01 DA028300/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA028300-04/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH057368/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH057368-14/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01DA028300/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01MH057368/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U19MH82441/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Mar 23;335(6075):1513-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1214985.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22442487" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amygdala/physiology ; Animals ; Behavior, Animal ; Brain/*physiology ; CA1 Region, Hippocampal/physiopathology ; Clozapine/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology ; Conditioning (Psychology) ; Cues ; Electroshock ; *Fear ; Genes, fos ; Learning ; *Memory ; Mental Recall ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Nerve Net/physiology ; Neurons/*physiology ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Receptor, Muscarinic M3/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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