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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-06
    Description: Current genetic data are equivocal as to whether goat domestication occurred multiple times or was a singular process. We generated genomic data from 83 ancient goats (51 with genome-wide coverage) from Paleolithic to Medieval contexts throughout the Near East. Our findings demonstrate that multiple divergent ancient wild goat sources were domesticated in a dispersed process that resulted in genetically and geographically distinct Neolithic goat populations, echoing contemporaneous human divergence across the region. These early goat populations contributed differently to modern goats in Asia, Africa, and Europe. We also detect early selection for pigmentation, stature, reproduction, milking, and response to dietary change, providing 8000-year-old evidence for human agency in molding genome variation within a partner species.
    Keywords: Genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-06-20
    Description: A challenge for HIV-1 immunogen design is the difficulty of inducing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against neutralization-resistant (tier 2) viruses that dominate human transmissions. We show that a soluble recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer that adopts a native conformation, BG505 SOSIP.664, induced NAbs potently against the sequence-matched tier 2 virus in rabbits and similar but weaker responses in macaques. The trimer also consistently induced cross-reactive NAbs against more sensitive (tier 1) viruses. Tier 2 NAbs recognized conformational epitopes that differed between animals and in some cases overlapped with those recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), whereas tier 1 responses targeted linear V3 epitopes. A second trimer, B41 SOSIP.664, also induced a strong autologous tier 2 NAb response in rabbits. Thus, native-like trimers represent a promising starting point for the development of HIV-1 vaccines aimed at inducing bNAbs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4498988/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4498988/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sanders, Rogier W -- van Gils, Marit J -- Derking, Ronald -- Sok, Devin -- Ketas, Thomas J -- Burger, Judith A -- Ozorowski, Gabriel -- Cupo, Albert -- Simonich, Cassandra -- Goo, Leslie -- Arendt, Heather -- Kim, Helen J -- Lee, Jeong Hyun -- Pugach, Pavel -- Williams, Melissa -- Debnath, Gargi -- Moldt, Brian -- van Breemen, Marielle J -- Isik, Gozde -- Medina-Ramirez, Max -- Back, Jaap Willem -- Koff, Wayne C -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- Rakasz, Eva G -- Seaman, Michael S -- Guttman, Miklos -- Lee, Kelly K -- Klasse, Per Johan -- LaBranche, Celia -- Schief, William R -- Wilson, Ian A -- Overbaugh, Julie -- Burton, Dennis R -- Ward, Andrew B -- Montefiori, David C -- Dean, Hansi -- Moore, John P -- 280829/European Research Council/International -- HHSN27201100016C/PHS HHS/ -- P01 AI082362/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P51 OD011106/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P51OD011106/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI076105/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI036082/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007266/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 10;349(6244):aac4223. doi: 10.1126/science.aac4223. Epub 2015 Jun 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. jpm2003@med.cornell.edu rws2002@med.cornell.edu. ; Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, New York, NY 10004, USA. ; Pepscan Therapeutics, 8243RC Lelystad, Netherlands. ; Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53715, USA. ; Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT, and Harvard, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, New York, NY 10004, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT, and Harvard, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT, and Harvard, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA. jpm2003@med.cornell.edu rws2002@med.cornell.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26089353" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/*immunology ; Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/*immunology ; Cross Reactions ; Epitopes/immunology ; HIV Antibodies/*immunology ; HIV Infections/*prevention & control ; HIV-1/*immunology ; Humans ; Macaca ; Protein Engineering ; Protein Multimerization ; Rabbits ; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry/genetics/immunology ; env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/chemistry/genetics/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2010-12-18
    Description: Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of children. To identify the genetic alterations in this tumor type, we searched for copy number alterations using high-density microarrays and sequenced all known protein-coding genes and microRNA genes using Sanger sequencing in a set of 22 MBs. We found that, on average, each tumor had 11 gene alterations, fewer by a factor of 5 to 10 than in the adult solid tumors that have been sequenced to date. In addition to alterations in the Hedgehog and Wnt pathways, our analysis led to the discovery of genes not previously known to be altered in MBs. Most notably, inactivating mutations of the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase genes MLL2 or MLL3 were identified in 16% of MB patients. These results demonstrate key differences between the genetic landscapes of adult and childhood cancers, highlight dysregulation of developmental pathways as an important mechanism underlying MBs, and identify a role for a specific type of histone methylation in human tumorigenesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3110744/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3110744/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Parsons, D Williams -- Li, Meng -- Zhang, Xiaosong -- Jones, Sian -- Leary, Rebecca J -- Lin, Jimmy Cheng-Ho -- Boca, Simina M -- Carter, Hannah -- Samayoa, Josue -- Bettegowda, Chetan -- Gallia, Gary L -- Jallo, George I -- Binder, Zev A -- Nikolsky, Yuri -- Hartigan, James -- Smith, Doug R -- Gerhard, Daniela S -- Fults, Daniel W -- VandenBerg, Scott -- Berger, Mitchel S -- Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi -- Shinjo, Sueli Mieko Oba -- Clara, Carlos -- Phillips, Peter C -- Minturn, Jane E -- Biegel, Jaclyn A -- Judkins, Alexander R -- Resnick, Adam C -- Storm, Phillip B -- Curran, Tom -- He, Yiping -- Rasheed, B Ahmed -- Friedman, Henry S -- Keir, Stephen T -- McLendon, Roger -- Northcott, Paul A -- Taylor, Michael D -- Burger, Peter C -- Riggins, Gregory J -- Karchin, Rachel -- Parmigiani, Giovanni -- Bigner, Darell D -- Yan, Hai -- Papadopoulos, Nick -- Vogelstein, Bert -- Kinzler, Kenneth W -- Velculescu, Victor E -- CA057345/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA096832/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA118822/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA121113/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA135877/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM074906-01A1/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HHSN261200800001E/PHS HHS/ -- P01 CA096832/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA096832-03/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA108622/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA121113/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA121113-05/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 CA057345/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 CA057345-20/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jan 28;331(6016):435-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1198056. Epub 2010 Dec 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ludwig Center for Cancer Genetics and Therapeutics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21163964" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Cerebellar Neoplasms/*genetics/metabolism ; Child ; DNA Copy Number Variations ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; *Genes, Neoplasm ; Genes, Tumor Suppressor ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics/metabolism ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; Medulloblastoma/*genetics/metabolism ; Methylation ; MicroRNAs/genetics ; *Mutation ; Neoplasm Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Point Mutation ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-06-20
    Description: Pioneer transcription factors initiate cell-fate changes by binding to silent target genes. They are among the first factors to bind key regulatory sites and facilitate chromatin opening. Here, we identify an additional role for pioneer factors. In early Caenorhabditis elegans foregut development, the pioneer factor PHA-4/FoxA binds promoters and recruits RNA polymerase II (Pol II), often in a poised configuration in which Pol II accumulates near transcription start sites. At a later developmental stage, PHA-4 promotes chromatin opening. We found many more genes with poised RNA polymerase than had been observed previously in unstaged embryos, revealing that early embryos accumulate poised Pol II and that poising is dynamic. Our results suggest that Pol II recruitment, in addition to chromatin opening, is an important feature of PHA-4 pioneer factor activity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hsu, H-T -- Chen, H-M -- Yang, Z -- Wang, J -- Lee, N K -- Burger, A -- Zaret, K -- Liu, T -- Levine, E -- Mango, S E -- P40OD010440/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R37GM056264/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37GM36477/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jun 19;348(6241):1372-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aab1223.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. ; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA. ; Department of Physics and Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA. Department of Biostatistics, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. smango@mcb.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26089518" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*embryology/genetics/metabolism ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/*metabolism ; Chromatin/*metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Genes, Helminth ; RNA Polymerase II/*metabolism ; Trans-Activators/*metabolism ; Transcription Initiation Site ; Transcriptome
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-02-22
    Description: The primary endosymbiotic origin of the plastid in eukaryotes more than 1 billion years ago led to the evolution of algae and plants. We analyzed draft genome and transcriptome data from the basally diverging alga Cyanophora paradoxa and provide evidence for a single origin of the primary plastid in the eukaryote supergroup Plantae. C. paradoxa retains ancestral features of starch biosynthesis, fermentation, and plastid protein translocation common to plants and algae but lacks typical eukaryotic light-harvesting complex proteins. Traces of an ancient link to parasites such as Chlamydiae were found in the genomes of C. paradoxa and other Plantae. Apparently, Chlamydia-like bacteria donated genes that allow export of photosynthate from the plastid and its polymerization into storage polysaccharide in the cytosol.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Price, Dana C -- Chan, Cheong Xin -- Yoon, Hwan Su -- Yang, Eun Chan -- Qiu, Huan -- Weber, Andreas P M -- Schwacke, Rainer -- Gross, Jeferson -- Blouin, Nicolas A -- Lane, Chris -- Reyes-Prieto, Adrian -- Durnford, Dion G -- Neilson, Jonathan A D -- Lang, B Franz -- Burger, Gertraud -- Steiner, Jurgen M -- Loffelhardt, Wolfgang -- Meuser, Jonathan E -- Posewitz, Matthew C -- Ball, Steven -- Arias, Maria Cecilia -- Henrissat, Bernard -- Coutinho, Pedro M -- Rensing, Stefan A -- Symeonidi, Aikaterini -- Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan -- Green, Beverley R -- Rajah, Veeran D -- Boore, Jeffrey -- Bhattacharya, Debashish -- MSP-14226/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Feb 17;335(6070):843-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1213561.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22344442" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Cyanobacteria/genetics ; Cyanophora/*genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Transfer, Horizontal ; Genes, Bacterial ; *Genome, Plant ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Photosynthesis/*genetics ; Phylogeny ; Symbiosis
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-10-12
    Description: Debate on the ancestry of Europeans centers on the interplay between Mesolithic foragers and Neolithic farmers. Foragers are generally believed to have disappeared shortly after the arrival of agriculture. To investigate the relation between foragers and farmers, we examined Mesolithic and Neolithic samples from the Blatterhohle site. Mesolithic mitochondrial DNA sequences were typical of European foragers, whereas the Neolithic sample included additional lineages that are associated with early farmers. However, isotope analyses separate the Neolithic sample into two groups: one with an agriculturalist diet and one with a forager and freshwater fish diet, the latter carrying mitochondrial DNA sequences typical of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. This indicates that the descendants of Mesolithic people maintained a foraging lifestyle in Central Europe for more than 2000 years after the arrival of farming societies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bollongino, Ruth -- Nehlich, Olaf -- Richards, Michael P -- Orschiedt, Jorg -- Thomas, Mark G -- Sell, Christian -- Fajkosova, Zuzana -- Powell, Adam -- Burger, Joachim -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Oct 25;342(6157):479-81. doi: 10.1126/science.1245049. Epub 2013 Oct 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Palaeogenetics Group, Institute of Anthropology, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24114781" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/*history ; Animal Feed/*history ; Animals ; Animals, Domestic ; *Anthropology ; Base Sequence ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics/history ; Europe ; *Evolution, Molecular ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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