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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-06-08
    Description: The intestinal microflora, typically equated with bacteria, influences diseases such as obesity and inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we show that the mammalian gut contains a rich fungal community that interacts with the immune system through the innate immune receptor Dectin-1. Mice lacking Dectin-1 exhibited increased susceptibility to chemically induced colitis, which was the result of altered responses to indigenous fungi. In humans, we identified a polymorphism in the gene for Dectin-1 (CLEC7A) that is strongly linked to a severe form of ulcerative colitis. Together, our findings reveal a eukaryotic fungal community in the gut (the "mycobiome") that coexists with bacteria and substantially expands the repertoire of organisms interacting with the intestinal immune system to influence health and disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3432565/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3432565/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Iliev, Iliyan D -- Funari, Vincent A -- Taylor, Kent D -- Nguyen, Quoclinh -- Reyes, Christopher N -- Strom, Samuel P -- Brown, Jordan -- Becker, Courtney A -- Fleshner, Phillip R -- Dubinsky, Marla -- Rotter, Jerome I -- Wang, Hanlin L -- McGovern, Dermot P B -- Brown, Gordon D -- Underhill, David M -- 086558/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- AI071116/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01-DK046763/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK093426/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR033176/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000124/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1RR033176/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jun 8;336(6086):1314-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1221789. Epub 2012 Jun 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Inflammatory Bowel and Immunobiology Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22674328" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies, Fungal/blood ; Candida tropicalis/immunology/isolation & purification/pathogenicity/physiology ; Colitis, Ulcerative/chemically induced/*immunology/*microbiology ; Colon/immunology/*microbiology ; Colony Count, Microbial ; Dextran Sulfate ; Disease Susceptibility ; Female ; Fungi/classification/*immunology/isolation & purification/*physiology ; Haplotypes ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate ; Immunity, Mucosal ; Intestinal Mucosa/immunology/*microbiology ; Intestines/immunology/microbiology ; Lectins, C-Type/deficiency/*genetics/*metabolism ; Metagenome ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Intestinal fungi are an important component of the microbiota, and recent studies have unveiled their potential in modulating host immune homeostasis and inflammatory disease. Nonetheless, the mechanisms governing immunity to gut fungal communities (mycobiota) remain unknown. We identified CX3CR1 + mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) as being essential for the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses to intestinal fungi. CX3CR1 + MNPs express antifungal receptors and activate antifungal responses in a Syk-dependent manner. Genetic ablation of CX3CR1 + MNPs in mice led to changes in gut fungal communities and to severe colitis that was rescued by antifungal treatment. In Crohn’s disease patients, a missense mutation in the gene encoding CX3CR1 was identified and found to be associated with impaired antifungal responses. These results unravel a role of CX3CR1 + MNPs in mediating interactions between intestinal mycobiota and host immunity at steady state and during inflammatory disease.
    Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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