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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (2)
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  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-11-09
    Description: Antibiotic resistance is often the result of mutations that block drug activity; however, bacteria also evade antibiotics by transiently expressing genes such as multidrug efflux pumps. A crucial question is whether transient resistance can promote permanent genetic changes. Previous studies have established that antibiotic treatment can select tolerant cells that then mutate to achieve permanent resistance. Whether these mutations result from antibiotic stress or preexist within the population is unclear. To address this question, we focused on the multidrug pump AcrAB-TolC. Using time-lapse microscopy, we found that cells with higher acrAB expression have lower expression of the DNA mismatch repair gene mutS , lower growth rates, and higher mutation frequencies. Thus, transient antibiotic resistance from elevated acrAB expression can promote spontaneous mutations within single cells.
    Keywords: Engineering, Microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Description: Myofibroblasts orchestrate wound healing processes, and if they remain activated, they drive disease progression such as fibrosis and cancer. Besides growth factor signaling, the local extracellular matrix (ECM) and its mechanical properties are central regulators of these processes. It remains unknown whether transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) and tensile forces work synergistically in up-regulating the transition of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and whether myofibroblasts undergo apoptosis or become deactivated by other means once tissue homeostasis is reached. We used three-dimensional microtissues grown in vitro from fibroblasts in macroscopically engineered clefts for several weeks and found that fibroblasts transitioned into myofibroblasts at the highly tensed growth front as the microtissue progressively closed the cleft, in analogy to closing a wound site. Proliferation was up-regulated at the growth front, and new highly stretched fibronectin fibers were deposited, as revealed by fibronectin fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes. As the tissue was growing, the ECM underneath matured into a collagen-rich tissue containing mostly fibroblasts instead of myofibroblasts, and the fibronectin fibers were under reduced tension. This correlated with a progressive rounding of cells from the growth front inward, with decreased α–smooth muscle actin expression, YAP nuclear translocation, and cell proliferation. Together, this suggests that the myofibroblast phenotype is stabilized at the growth front by tensile forces, even in the absence of endogenously supplemented TGF-β, and reverts into a quiescent fibroblast phenotype already 10 μm behind the growth front, thus giving rise to a myofibroblast-to-fibroblast transition. This is the hallmark of reaching prohealing homeostasis.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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