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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-05-28
    Description: Kessler et al. (Reports, 21 January 2011, p. 312) reported that methane released from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout, approximately 40% of the total hydrocarbon discharge, was consumed quantitatively by methanotrophic bacteria in Gulf of Mexico deep waters over a 4-month period. We find the evidence explicitly linking observed oxygen anomalies to methane consumption ambiguous and extension of these observations to hydrate-derived methane climate forcing premature.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Joye, Samantha B -- Leifer, Ira -- MacDonald, Ian R -- Chanton, Jeffery P -- Meile, Christof D -- Teske, Andreas P -- Kostka, Joel E -- Chistoserdova, Ludmila -- Coffin, Richard -- Hollander, David -- Kastner, Miriam -- Montoya, Joseph P -- Rehder, Gregor -- Solomon, Evan -- Treude, Tina -- Villareal, Tracy A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 May 27;332(6033):1033; author reply 1033. doi: 10.1126/science.1203307.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. mjoye@uga.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21617058" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Atlantic Ocean ; Biodegradation, Environmental ; Biomass ; *Environmental Pollution ; Hydrocarbons/analysis/metabolism ; Methane/analysis/*metabolism ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Oxygen/*analysis ; Oxygen Consumption ; *Petroleum ; Proteobacteria/growth & development/*metabolism ; Seawater/chemistry/*microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-21
    Description: The brain is thought to sense gut stimuli only via the passive release of hormones. This is because no connection has been described between the vagus and the putative gut epithelial sensor cell—the enteroendocrine cell. However, these electrically excitable cells contain several features of epithelial transducers. Using a mouse model, we found that enteroendocrine cells synapse with vagal neurons to transduce gut luminal signals in milliseconds by using glutamate as a neurotransmitter. These synaptically connected enteroendocrine cells are referred to henceforth as neuropod cells. The neuroepithelial circuit they form connects the intestinal lumen to the brainstem in one synapse, opening a physical conduit for the brain to sense gut stimuli with the temporal precision and topographical resolution of a synapse.
    Keywords: Neuroscience, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-03-02
    Description: Type I interferons (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) are important for protection against many viral infections, whereas type II interferon (IFN-gamma) is essential for host defense against some bacterial and parasitic pathogens. Study of IFN responses in human leprosy revealed an inverse correlation between IFN-beta and IFN-gamma gene expression programs. IFN-gamma and its downstream vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial genes were preferentially expressed in self-healing tuberculoid lesions and mediated antimicrobial activity against the pathogen Mycobacterium leprae in vitro. In contrast, IFN-beta and its downstream genes, including interleukin-10 (IL-10), were induced in monocytes by M. leprae in vitro and preferentially expressed in disseminated and progressive lepromatous lesions. The IFN-gamma-induced macrophage vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial peptide response was inhibited by IFN-beta and by IL-10, suggesting that the differential production of IFNs contributes to protection versus pathogenesis in some human bacterial infections.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3653587/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3653587/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Teles, Rosane M B -- Graeber, Thomas G -- Krutzik, Stephan R -- Montoya, Dennis -- Schenk, Mirjam -- Lee, Delphine J -- Komisopoulou, Evangelia -- Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra -- Chun, Rene -- Iyer, Shankar S -- Sarno, Euzenir N -- Rea, Thomas H -- Hewison, Martin -- Adams, John S -- Popper, Stephen J -- Relman, David A -- Stenger, Steffen -- Bloom, Barry R -- Cheng, Genhong -- Modlin, Robert L -- P50 AR063020/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI022553/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI047868/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI056154/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI082575/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR040312/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR059126/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009120/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- UL1TR000124/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Mar 22;339(6126):1448-53. doi: 10.1126/science.1233665. Epub 2013 Feb 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Dermatology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23449998" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase/genetics/metabolism ; Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Interferon-beta/genetics/*immunology/metabolism ; Interferon-gamma/genetics/*immunology/metabolism ; Interleukin-10/genetics/metabolism ; Leprosy, Lepromatous/genetics/*immunology/metabolism ; Leprosy, Tuberculoid/genetics/*immunology/metabolism ; Microbial Viability ; Monocytes/immunology/metabolism ; Mycobacterium leprae/*immunology/physiology ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics/metabolism ; Transcriptome ; Tuberculosis/genetics/immunology ; Up-Regulation ; beta-Defensins/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-10-19
    Description: The vast extent of the Amazon Basin has historically restricted the study of its tree communities to the local and regional scales. Here, we provide empirical data on the commonness, rarity, and richness of lowland tree species across the entire Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield (Amazonia), collected in 1170 tree plots in all major forest types. Extrapolations suggest that Amazonia harbors roughly 16,000 tree species, of which just 227 (1.4%) account for half of all trees. Most of these are habitat specialists and only dominant in one or two regions of the basin. We discuss some implications of the finding that a small group of species--less diverse than the North American tree flora--accounts for half of the world's most diverse tree community.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉ter Steege, Hans -- Pitman, Nigel C A -- Sabatier, Daniel -- Baraloto, Christopher -- Salomao, Rafael P -- Guevara, Juan Ernesto -- Phillips, Oliver L -- Castilho, Carolina V -- Magnusson, William E -- Molino, Jean-Francois -- Monteagudo, Abel -- Nunez Vargas, Percy -- Montero, Juan Carlos -- Feldpausch, Ted R -- Coronado, Euridice N Honorio -- Killeen, Tim J -- Mostacedo, Bonifacio -- Vasquez, Rodolfo -- Assis, Rafael L -- Terborgh, John -- Wittmann, Florian -- Andrade, Ana -- Laurance, William F -- Laurance, Susan G W -- Marimon, Beatriz S -- Marimon, Ben-Hur Jr -- Guimaraes Vieira, Ima Celia -- Amaral, Ieda Leao -- Brienen, Roel -- Castellanos, Hernan -- Cardenas Lopez, Dairon -- Duivenvoorden, Joost F -- Mogollon, Hugo F -- Matos, Francisca Dionizia de Almeida -- Davila, Nallarett -- Garcia-Villacorta, Roosevelt -- Stevenson Diaz, Pablo Roberto -- Costa, Flavia -- Emilio, Thaise -- Levis, Carolina -- Schietti, Juliana -- Souza, Priscila -- Alonso, Alfonso -- Dallmeier, Francisco -- Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque -- Fernandez Piedade, Maria Teresa -- Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro -- Arroyo, Luzmila -- Gribel, Rogerio -- Fine, Paul V A -- Peres, Carlos A -- Toledo, Marisol -- Aymard C, Gerardo A -- Baker, Tim R -- Ceron, Carlos -- Engel, Julien -- Henkel, Terry W -- Maas, Paul -- Petronelli, Pascal -- Stropp, Juliana -- Zartman, Charles Eugene -- Daly, Doug -- Neill, David -- Silveira, Marcos -- Paredes, Marcos Rios -- Chave, Jerome -- Lima Filho, Diogenes de Andrade -- Jorgensen, Peter Moller -- Fuentes, Alfredo -- Schongart, Jochen -- Cornejo Valverde, Fernando -- Di Fiore, Anthony -- Jimenez, Eliana M -- Penuela Mora, Maria Cristina -- Phillips, Juan Fernando -- Rivas, Gonzalo -- van Andel, Tinde R -- von Hildebrand, Patricio -- Hoffman, Bruce -- Zent, Eglee L -- Malhi, Yadvinder -- Prieto, Adriana -- Rudas, Agustin -- Ruschell, Ademir R -- Silva, Natalino -- Vos, Vincent -- Zent, Stanford -- Oliveira, Alexandre A -- Schutz, Angela Cano -- Gonzales, Therany -- Trindade Nascimento, Marcelo -- Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma -- Sierra, Rodrigo -- Tirado, Milton -- Umana Medina, Maria Natalia -- van der Heijden, Geertje -- Vela, Cesar I A -- Vilanova Torre, Emilio -- Vriesendorp, Corine -- Wang, Ophelia -- Young, Kenneth R -- Baider, Claudia -- Balslev, Henrik -- Ferreira, Cid -- Mesones, Italo -- Torres-Lezama, Armando -- Urrego Giraldo, Ligia Estela -- Zagt, Roderick -- Alexiades, Miguel N -- Hernandez, Lionel -- Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau -- Milliken, William -- Palacios Cuenca, Walter -- Pauletto, Daniela -- Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis -- Valenzuela Gamarra, Luis -- Dexter, Kyle G -- Feeley, Ken -- Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela -- Silman, Miles R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Oct 18;342(6156):1243092. doi: 10.1126/science.1243092.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24136971" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biodiversity ; Models, Biological ; Population ; *Rivers ; South America ; Trees/*classification/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-09-19
    Description: The four genetically divergent dengue virus (DENV) types are traditionally classified as serotypes. Antigenic and genetic differences among the DENV types influence disease outcome, vaccine-induced protection, epidemic magnitude, and viral evolution. We characterized antigenic diversity in the DENV types by antigenic maps constructed from neutralizing antibody titers obtained from African green monkeys and after human vaccination and natural infections. Genetically, geographically, and temporally, diverse DENV isolates clustered loosely by type, but we found that many are as similar antigenically to a virus of a different type as to some viruses of the same type. Primary infection antisera did not neutralize all viruses of the same DENV type any better than other types did up to 2 years after infection and did not show improved neutralization to homologous type isolates. That the canonical DENV types are not antigenically homogeneous has implications for vaccination and research on the dynamics of immunity, disease, and the evolution of DENV.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Katzelnick, Leah C -- Fonville, Judith M -- Gromowski, Gregory D -- Bustos Arriaga, Jose -- Green, Angela -- James, Sarah L -- Lau, Louis -- Montoya, Magelda -- Wang, Chunling -- VanBlargan, Laura A -- Russell, Colin A -- Thu, Hlaing Myat -- Pierson, Theodore C -- Buchy, Philippe -- Aaskov, John G -- Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L -- Vasilakis, Nikos -- Gibbons, Robert V -- Tesh, Robert B -- Osterhaus, Albert D M E -- Fouchier, Ron A M -- Durbin, Anna -- Simmons, Cameron P -- Holmes, Edward C -- Harris, Eva -- Whitehead, Stephen S -- Smith, Derek J -- 089276/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- DP1-OD000490-01/OD/NIH HHS/ -- HHSN266200700010C/PHS HHS/ -- HHSN272201000040I/HHSN27200004/D04/PHS HHS/ -- HHSN272201400008C/PHS HHS/ -- MR/K021885/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Sep 18;349(6254):1338-43. doi: 10.1126/science.aac5017.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Pathogen Evolution, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Modeling, Evolution, and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3370, USA. ; Center for Pathogen Evolution, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Modeling, Evolution, and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam 3015 GE, Netherlands. ; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ; Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3370, USA. ; Center for Pathogen Evolution, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Modeling, Evolution, and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. ; Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK. ; Department of Medical Research, Ziwaka Road, Yangon, Myanmar. ; Institut Pasteur in Cambodia, Reseau International des Instituts Pasteur, Phnom Penh 12201, Cambodia. ; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4001, Australia. Australian Army Malaria Institute, Brisbane 4051, Australia. ; Dengue Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan 00971, Puerto Rico. ; Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. Center for Tropical Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. ; Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. ; Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam 3015 GE, Netherlands. ; Center for Immunization Research, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. ; Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Australia. ; Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Charles Perkins Centre, School of Biological Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia. ; Center for Pathogen Evolution, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Modeling, Evolution, and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam 3015 GE, Netherlands. djs200@cam.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26383952" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology ; Antibodies, Viral/immunology ; Antigens, Viral/*immunology ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; Dengue Vaccines/immunology ; Dengue Virus/*classification/genetics/*immunology ; Evolution, Molecular ; Humans ; Immune Sera/immunology ; Phylogeny ; Serogroup ; Serotyping ; Vaccination ; Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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