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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-27
    Description: The reflectance spectra of the most abundant meteorites, ordinary chondrites, are different from those of the abundant S-type (mnemonic for siliceous) asteroids. This discrepancy has been thought to be due to space weathering, which is an alteration of the surfaces of airless bodies exposed to the space environment. Here we report evidence of space weathering on particles returned from the S-type asteroid 25143 Itokawa by the Hayabusa spacecraft. Surface modification was found in 5 out of 10 particles, which varies depending on mineral species. Sulfur-bearing Fe-rich nanoparticles exist in a thin (5 to 15 nanometers) surface layer on olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, and plagioclase, which is suggestive of vapor deposition. Sulfur-free Fe-rich nanoparticles exist deeper inside (〈60 nanometers) ferromagnesian silicates. Their texture suggests formation by metamictization and in situ reduction of Fe(2+).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Noguchi, T -- Nakamura, T -- Kimura, M -- Zolensky, M E -- Tanaka, M -- Hashimoto, T -- Konno, M -- Nakato, A -- Ogami, T -- Fujimura, A -- Abe, M -- Yada, T -- Mukai, T -- Ueno, M -- Okada, T -- Shirai, K -- Ishibashi, Y -- Okazaki, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Aug 26;333(6046):1121-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1207794.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512, Japan. tngc@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21868670" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-11-15
    Description: Although recent psychophysical studies indicate that visual awareness and top-down attention are two distinct processes, it is not clear how they are neurally dissociated in the visual system. Using a two-by-two factorial functional magnetic resonance imaging design with binocular suppression, we found that the visibility or invisibility of a visual target led to only nonsignificant blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effects in the human primary visual cortex (V1). Directing attention toward and away from the target had much larger and robust effects across all study participants. The difference in the lower-level limit of BOLD activation between attention and awareness illustrates dissociated neural correlates of the two processes. Our results agree with previously reported V1 BOLD effects on attention, while they invite a reconsideration of the functional role of V1 in visual awareness.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Watanabe, Masataka -- Cheng, Kang -- Murayama, Yusuke -- Ueno, Kenichi -- Asamizuya, Takeshi -- Tanaka, Keiji -- Logothetis, Nikos -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Nov 11;334(6057):829-31. doi: 10.1126/science.1203161.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. watanabe@tuebingen.mpg.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22076381" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; *Attention ; *Awareness ; Brain Mapping ; Female ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Oxygen/blood ; Photic Stimulation ; Vision, Ocular ; Visual Cortex/*physiology ; Visual Perception/*physiology ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-27
    Description: Noble gas isotopes were measured in three rocky grains from asteroid Itokawa to elucidate a history of irradiation from cosmic rays and solar wind on its surface. Large amounts of solar helium (He), neon (Ne), and argon (Ar) trapped in various depths in the grains were observed, which can be explained by multiple implantations of solar wind particles into the grains, combined with preferential He loss caused by frictional wear of space-weathered rims on the grains. Short residence time of less than 8 million years was implied for the grains by an estimate on cosmic-ray-produced (21)Ne. Our results suggest that Itokawa is continuously losing its surface materials into space at a rate of tens of centimeters per million years. The lifetime of Itokawa should be much shorter than the age of our solar system.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nagao, Keisuke -- Okazaki, Ryuji -- Nakamura, Tomoki -- Miura, Yayoi N -- Osawa, Takahito -- Bajo, Ken-ichi -- Matsuda, Shintaro -- Ebihara, Mitsuru -- Ireland, Trevor R -- Kitajima, Fumio -- Naraoka, Hiroshi -- Noguchi, Takaaki -- Tsuchiyama, Akira -- Yurimoto, Hisayoshi -- Zolensky, Michael E -- Uesugi, Masayuki -- Shirai, Kei -- Abe, Masanao -- Yada, Toru -- Ishibashi, Yukihiro -- Fujimura, Akio -- Mukai, Toshifumi -- Ueno, Munetaka -- Okada, Tatsuaki -- Yoshikawa, Makoto -- Kawaguchi, Junichiro -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Aug 26;333(6046):1128-31. doi: 10.1126/science.1207785.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Geochemical Research Center, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. nagao@eqchem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21868672" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-27
    Description: The Hayabusa spacecraft successfully recovered dust particles from the surface of near-Earth asteroid 25143 Itokawa. Synchrotron-radiation x-ray diffraction and transmission and scanning electron microscope analyses indicate that the mineralogy and mineral chemistry of the Itokawa dust particles are identical to those of thermally metamorphosed LL chondrites, consistent with spectroscopic observations made from Earth and by the Hayabusa spacecraft. Our results directly demonstrate that ordinary chondrites, the most abundant meteorites found on Earth, come from S-type asteroids. Mineral chemistry indicates that the majority of regolith surface particles suffered long-term thermal annealing and subsequent impact shock, suggesting that Itokawa is an asteroid made of reassembled pieces of the interior portions of a once larger asteroid.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nakamura, Tomoki -- Noguchi, Takaaki -- Tanaka, Masahiko -- Zolensky, Michael E -- Kimura, Makoto -- Tsuchiyama, Akira -- Nakato, Aiko -- Ogami, Toshihiro -- Ishida, Hatsumi -- Uesugi, Masayuki -- Yada, Toru -- Shirai, Kei -- Fujimura, Akio -- Okazaki, Ryuji -- Sandford, Scott A -- Ishibashi, Yukihiro -- Abe, Masanao -- Okada, Tatsuaki -- Ueno, Munetaka -- Mukai, Toshifumi -- Yoshikawa, Makoto -- Kawaguchi, Junichiro -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Aug 26;333(6046):1113-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1207758.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth and Planetary Material Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan. tomoki@m.tohoku.ac.jp〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21868667" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-05-28
    Description: The electric field effect in ferromagnetic semiconductors enables switching of the magnetization, which is a key technology for spintronic applications. We demonstrated electric field-induced ferromagnetism at room temperature in a magnetic oxide semiconductor, (Ti,Co)O(2), by means of electric double-layer gating with high-density electron accumulation (〉10(14) per square centimeter). By applying a gate voltage of a few volts, a low-carrier paramagnetic state was transformed into a high-carrier ferromagnetic state, thereby revealing the considerable role of electron carriers in high-temperature ferromagnetism and demonstrating a route to room-temperature semiconductor spintronics.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yamada, Y -- Ueno, K -- Fukumura, T -- Yuan, H T -- Shimotani, H -- Iwasa, Y -- Gu, L -- Tsukimoto, S -- Ikuhara, Y -- Kawasaki, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 May 27;332(6033):1065-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1202152.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21617071" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Wächtershäuser’s proposal of the autotrophic origin of life theory and subsequent laboratory demonstrations of relevant organic reactions have opened a new gate for the exploration of the origin of life. However, this scenario remains controversial because, at present, it requires a high pressure of CO as a source of carbon and reducing energy, although CO must have been a trace C species on the Hadean Earth. We show that, simulating a geoelectrochemical environment in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, CO production with up to ~40% Faraday efficiency was attainable on CdS in CO 2 -saturated NaCl solution at ≤–1 V (versus the standard hydrogen electrode). The threshold potential is readily generated in the H 2 -rich, high-temperature, and alkaline hydrothermal vents that were probably widespread on the early komatiitic and basaltic ocean crust. Thus, Wächtershäuser’s scenario starting from CO 2 was likely to be realized in the Hadean ocean hydrothermal systems.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-01-22
    Description: The superior capability of cognitive experts largely depends on quick automatic processes. To reveal their neural bases, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study brain activity of professional and amateur players in a board game named shogi. We found two activations specific to professionals: one in the precuneus of the parietal lobe during perception of board patterns, and the other in the caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia during quick generation of the best next move. Activities at these two sites covaried in relevant tasks. These results suggest that the precuneus-caudate circuit implements the automatic, yet complicated, processes of board-pattern perception and next-move generation in board game experts.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wan, Xiaohong -- Nakatani, Hironori -- Ueno, Kenichi -- Asamizuya, Takeshi -- Cheng, Kang -- Tanaka, Keiji -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jan 21;331(6015):341-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1194732.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cognitive Brain Mapping Laboratory, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21252348" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Brain Mapping ; Caudate Nucleus/*physiology ; Humans ; *Intuition ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Memory ; Neural Pathways ; Parietal Lobe/*physiology ; Perception ; *Play and Playthings ; Psychomotor Performance ; Reaction Time
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-01-26
    Description: Canonical aversive long-term memory (LTM) formation in Drosophila requires multiple spaced trainings, whereas appetitive LTM can be formed after a single training. Appetitive LTM requires fasting prior to training, which increases motivation for food intake. However, we found that fasting facilitated LTM formation in general; aversive LTM formation also occurred after single-cycle training when mild fasting was applied before training. Both fasting-dependent LTM (fLTM) and spaced training-dependent LTM (spLTM) required protein synthesis and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) activity. However, spLTM required CREB activity in two neural populations--mushroom body and DAL neurons--whereas fLTM required CREB activity only in mushroom body neurons. fLTM uses the CREB coactivator CRTC, whereas spLTM uses the coactivator CBP. Thus, flies use distinct LTM machinery depending on their hunger state.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hirano, Yukinori -- Masuda, Tomoko -- Naganos, Shintaro -- Matsuno, Motomi -- Ueno, Kohei -- Miyashita, Tomoyuki -- Horiuchi, Junjiro -- Saitoe, Minoru -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jan 25;339(6118):443-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1227170.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Sensory and Motor Systems, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Setagaya, Tokyo 156-0057, Japan. hirano-yk@igakuken.or.jp〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23349290" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CREB-Binding Protein/metabolism ; Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism ; Cycloheximide/pharmacology ; Drosophila/*physiology ; Drosophila Proteins/biosynthesis/*metabolism ; *Fasting ; *Memory, Long-Term/drug effects ; Mushroom Bodies/physiology ; Neurons/physiology ; Protein Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Transcription Factors/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ueno, Yuichiro -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 7;346(6210):703-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1261676. Epub 2014 Nov 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro Tokyo, 152-8551, Japan. Earth-Life Science Institute (WPI-ELSI), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro Tokyo, 152-8551, Japan. Precambrian Ecosystem Laboratory, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka 237-0061, Japan. ueno.y.ac@m.titech.ac.jp.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25378609" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacteria/*metabolism ; Biological Products/*history ; Seawater/*chemistry/*microbiology ; Sulfates/*history/*metabolism
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-01-18
    Description: The melting temperature of Earth's mantle provides key constraints on the thermal structures of both the mantle and the core. Through high-pressure experiments and three-dimensional x-ray microtomographic imaging, we showed that the solidus temperature of a primitive (pyrolitic) mantle is as low as 3570 +/- 200 kelvin at pressures expected near the boundary between the mantle and the outer core. Because the lowermost mantle is not globally molten, this provides an upper bound of the temperature at the core-mantle boundary (T(CMB)). Such remarkably low T(CMB) implies that the post-perovskite phase is present in wide areas of the lowermost mantle. The low T(CMB) also requires that the melting temperature of the outer core is depressed largely by impurities such as hydrogen.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nomura, Ryuichi -- Hirose, Kei -- Uesugi, Kentaro -- Ohishi, Yasuo -- Tsuchiyama, Akira -- Miyake, Akira -- Ueno, Yuichiro -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 31;343(6170):522-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1248186. Epub 2014 Jan 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24436185" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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