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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (16)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-11-10
    Description: Pulse oximetry sensors have been playing a key role as devices to monitor elemental yet critical human health states. Conventional pulse oximetry sensors, however, have relatively large power consumption, impeding their use as stand-alone, continuous monitoring systems that can easily be integrated with everyday life. Here, we exploit the design freedom offered by organic technologies to realize a reflective patch-type pulse oximetry sensor with ultralow power consumption. On the basis of flexible organic light-emitting diodes and organic photodiodes designed via an optical simulation of color-sensitive light propagation within human skin, the proposed monolithically integrated organic pulse oximetry sensor heads exhibit successful operation at electrical power as low as 24 μW on average. We thereby demonstrate that organic devices not only have form factor advantages for such applications but also hold great promise as enablers for all-day wearable health monitoring systems.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: In bacteria, nascent proteins bear the pretranslationally generated N-terminal (Nt) formyl-methionine (fMet) residue. Nt-fMet of bacterial proteins is a degradation signal, termed fMet/N-degron. By contrast, proteins synthesized by cytosolic ribosomes of eukaryotes were presumed to bear unformylated Nt-Met. Here we found that the yeast formyltransferase Fmt1, although imported into mitochondria, could also produce Nt-formylated proteins in the cytosol. Nt-formylated proteins were strongly up-regulated in stationary phase or upon starvation for specific amino acids. This up-regulation strictly required the Gcn2 kinase, which phosphorylates Fmt1 and mediates its retention in the cytosol. We also found that the Nt-fMet residues of Nt-formylated proteins act as fMet/N-degrons and identified the Psh1 ubiquitin ligase as the recognition component of the eukaryotic fMet/N-end rule pathway, which destroys Nt-formylated proteins.
    Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-11-30
    Description: Single-crystal metals have distinctive properties owing to the absence of grain boundaries and strong anisotropy. Commercial single-crystal metals are usually synthesized by bulk crystal growth or by deposition of thin films onto substrates, and they are expensive and small. We prepared extremely large single-crystal metal foils by "contact-free annealing" from commercial polycrystalline foils. The colossal grain growth (up to 32 square centimeters) is achieved by minimizing contact stresses, resulting in a preferred in-plane and out-of-plane crystal orientation, and is driven by surface energy minimization during the rotation of the crystal lattice followed by "consumption" of neighboring grains. Industrial-scale production of single-crystal metal foils is possible as a result of this discovery.
    Keywords: Materials Science
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-12-21
    Description: The inbred mouse C57BL/6J is the reference strain for genome sequence and for most behavioral and physiological phenotypes. However, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium uses an embryonic stem cell line derived from a related C57BL/6N substrain. We found that C57BL/6N has a lower acute and sensitized response to cocaine and methamphetamine. We mapped a single causative locus and identified a nonsynonymous mutation of serine to phenylalanine (S968F) in Cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2) as the causative variant. The S968F mutation destabilizes CYFIP2, and deletion of the C57BL/6N mutant allele leads to acute and sensitized cocaine-response phenotypes. We propose that CYFIP2 is a key regulator of cocaine response in mammals and present a framework to use mouse substrains to identify previously unknown genes and alleles regulating behavior.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4500108/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4500108/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kumar, Vivek -- Kim, Kyungin -- Joseph, Chryshanthi -- Kourrich, Said -- Yoo, Seung-Hee -- Huang, Hung Chung -- Vitaterna, Martha H -- de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel -- Churchill, Gary -- Bonci, Antonello -- Takahashi, Joseph S -- F32 DA024556/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- F32DA024556/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH061915/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01MH61915/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Dec 20;342(6165):1508-12. doi: 10.1126/science.1245503.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9111, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24357318" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Substitution ; Animals ; Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration & dosage ; Cocaine/*administration & dosage ; Cocaine-Related Disorders/*genetics/*psychology ; *Drug-Seeking Behavior ; Methamphetamine/administration & dosage ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Motor Activity/drug effects ; Mutation ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Phenylalanine/genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Psychomotor Performance/drug effects ; Quantitative Trait Loci ; Serine/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-11-29
    Description: DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are highly toxic lesions associated with cancer and degenerative diseases. ICLs can be repaired by the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway and through FA-independent processes involving the FAN1 nuclease. In this work, FAN1-DNA crystal structures and biochemical data reveal that human FAN1 cleaves DNA successively at every third nucleotide. In vitro, this exonuclease mechanism allows FAN1 to excise an ICL from one strand through flanking incisions. DNA access requires a 5'-terminal phosphate anchor at a nick or a 1- or 2-nucleotide flap and is augmented by a 3' flap, suggesting that FAN1 action is coupled to DNA synthesis or recombination. FAN1's mechanism of ICL excision is well suited for processing other localized DNA adducts as well.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4285437/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4285437/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Renjing -- Persky, Nicole S -- Yoo, Barney -- Ouerfelli, Ouathek -- Smogorzewska, Agata -- Elledge, Stephen J -- Pavletich, Nikola P -- P30 CA008748/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL120922/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL120922/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 28;346(6213):1127-30. doi: 10.1126/science.1258973.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Structural Biology Program and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Laboratory of Genome Maintenance, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Genetics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Structural Biology Program and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. pavletin@mskcc.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430771" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: DNA/biosynthesis/*chemistry/genetics ; DNA Adducts/*chemistry/genetics ; *DNA Repair ; DNA Replication ; Exodeoxyribonucleases/*chemistry/genetics ; Humans ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Protein Conformation ; Recombination, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-09-01
    Description: The mammalian circadian clock involves a transcriptional feed back loop in which CLOCK and BMAL1 activate the Period and Cryptochrome genes, which then feedback and repress their own transcription. We have interrogated the transcriptional architecture of the circadian transcriptional regulatory loop on a genome scale in mouse liver and find a stereotyped, time-dependent pattern of transcription factor binding, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment, RNA expression, and chromatin states. We find that the circadian transcriptional cycle of the clock consists of three distinct phases: a poised state, a coordinated de novo transcriptional activation state, and a repressed state. Only 22% of messenger RNA (mRNA) cycling genes are driven by de novo transcription, suggesting that both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms underlie the mammalian circadian clock. We also find that circadian modulation of RNAPII recruitment and chromatin remodeling occurs on a genome-wide scale far greater than that seen previously by gene expression profiling.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3694775/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3694775/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Koike, Nobuya -- Yoo, Seung-Hee -- Huang, Hung-Chung -- Kumar, Vivek -- Lee, Choogon -- Kim, Tae-Kyung -- Takahashi, Joseph S -- F32 DA024556/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS053616/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Oct 19;338(6105):349-54. doi: 10.1126/science.1226339. Epub 2012 Aug 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9111, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22936566" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ARNTL Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Animals ; CLOCK Proteins/metabolism ; Chromatin/*metabolism ; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/genetics ; Circadian Clocks/*genetics ; Cryptochromes/*genetics ; DNA, Intergenic ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; *Epigenesis, Genetic ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Genetic Loci ; Histones/metabolism ; Liver/metabolism/*physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Period Circadian Proteins/genetics ; RNA Polymerase II/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics ; *Transcription, Genetic ; *Transcriptional Activation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-10-05
    Description: Graphene is a distinct two-dimensional material that offers a wide range of opportunities for membrane applications because of ultimate thinness, flexibility, chemical stability, and mechanical strength. We demonstrate that few- and several-layered graphene and graphene oxide (GO) sheets can be engineered to exhibit the desired gas separation characteristics. Selective gas diffusion can be achieved by controlling gas flow channels and pores via different stacking methods. For layered (3- to 10-nanometer) GO membranes, tunable gas transport behavior was strongly dependent on the degree of interlocking within the GO stacking structure. High carbon dioxide/nitrogen selectivity was achieved by well-interlocked GO membranes in high relative humidity, which is most suitable for postcombustion carbon dioxide capture processes, including a humidified feed stream.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Hyo Won -- Yoon, Hee Wook -- Yoon, Seon-Mi -- Yoo, Byung Min -- Ahn, Byung Kook -- Cho, Young Hoon -- Shin, Hye Jin -- Yang, Hoichang -- Paik, Ungyu -- Kwon, Soongeun -- Choi, Jae-Young -- Park, Ho Bum -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Oct 4;342(6154):91-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1236098.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Republic of Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24092738" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-27
    Description: The key component currently missing for the next generation of transparent and flexible displays is a high-performance polymer material that is flexible, while showing optical and thermal properties of glass. It must be transparent to visible light and show a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). While specialty plastics such as aromatic polyimides are promising, reducing their CTE and improving transparency simultaneously proved challenging, with increasing coloration the main problem to be resolved. We report a new poly(amide-imide) material that is flexible and displays glass-like behavior with a CTE value of 4 parts per million/°C. This novel polymer was successfully used as a substrate to fabricate transparent and flexible indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-16
    Description: Highly active and durable bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts have been of pivotal importance for renewable energy conversion and storage devices, such as unitized regenerative fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Perovskite-based oxygen electrocatalysts have emerged as promising nonprecious metal bifunctional electrocatalysts, yet their catalytic activity and stability still remain to be improved. We report a high-performance oxygen electrocatalyst based on a triple perovskite, Nd 1.5 Ba 1.5 CoFeMnO 9– (NBCFM), which shows superior activity and durability for oxygen electrode reactions to single and double perovskites. When hybridized with nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO), the resulting NBCFM/N-rGO catalyst shows further boosted bifunctional oxygen electrode activity (0.698 V), which surpasses that of Pt/C (0.801 V) and Ir/C (0.769 V) catalysts and which, among the perovskite-based electrocatalysts, is the best activity reported to date. The superior catalytic performances of NBCFM could be correlated to its oxygen defect–rich structure, lower charge transfer resistance, and smaller hybridization strength between O 2p and Co 3d orbitals.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: Calcium transport plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial physiology and pathophysiology. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is a calcium-selective ion channel that is the primary mediator for calcium uptake into the mitochondrial matrix. Here, we present the cryo–electron microscopy structure of the full-length MCU from Neurospora crassa to an overall resolution of ~3.7 angstroms. Our structure reveals a tetrameric architecture, with the soluble and transmembrane domains adopting different symmetric arrangements within the channel. The conserved W-D---E-P-V-T-Y sequence motif of MCU pore forms a selectivity filter comprising two acidic rings separated by one helical turn along the central axis of the channel pore. The structure combined with mutagenesis gives insight into the basis of calcium recognition.
    Keywords: Biochemistry, Physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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