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  • 1
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A water-quenching technique was used to evaluate the thermal-shock strength behavior of silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics in an air atmosphere. When the tensile surface was shielded from air during the heating and soaking process, the quenched specimens showed a gradual decrease in strength at temperatures above 600°C. However, the specimens with the air-exposed surface exhibited a ∼16% and ∼29% increase in strength after quenching from 800° and 1000°C, respectively. This is because of the occurrence of surface oxidation, which may cause the healing of surface cracks and the generation of surface compressive stresses. As a result, some preoxidation of Si3N4 components before exposure to a thermal-shock environment is recommended in practical applications.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Strontium titanate (SrTiO3)-based multilayered film with varistor characteristics has successfully been fabricated by a chemical solution deposition (CSD) method. Homogeneous precursor solutions of SrTiO3 and Nb:SrTiO3 with long-term stability could be prepared by optimizing the reaction conditions among strontium ethoxide, titanium isopropoxide, and niobium ethoxide. Films were prepared using the precursor solutions on fused silica substrates at 700°C. Triple layered films with SrTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3/SrTiO3 structure were also successfully crystallized on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates at 700°C. The current–voltage (I-V) curve of the multilayered film was characteristic to varistors and the nonlinear coefficient α of the synthesized film was ∼3.0. The varistor voltages (E0.01) of 0.6-μm-thick film were 140 kV/cm for the forward direction and −120 kV/cm for the reverse direction, respectively, at room temperature.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The pulse electric current sintering technique (PECS) was demonstrated to be effective in rapid densification of fine-grained Al2O3/3Y-ZrO2 using available commercial powders. The composites attained full densification (〉99% of TD) at 1450°C in less than 5 min. The composites sintered at a high heating rate had a fine microstructure. The incorporation of 3 vol% 3Y-ZrO2 substantially increased the average fracture strength and the toughness of alumina to as high as 827 MPa and 6.1 MPa·m1/2, respectively. A variation in the heating rate during the PECS process influenced grain size, microstructure, and strength, though there was little or no variation in the fracture toughness.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Dislocation loops observed in nonstoichiometric and stoichiometric (Ba,Ca)TiO3, and in stoichiometric BaTiO3 sintered in a reducing atmosphere, were characterized by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) under two-beam conditions and high-resolution TEM atomic structure analysis. Dislocation loops mostly lay on {100} planes with Burgers vectors of type 〈100〉. The dynamic behavior of these dislocation loops during the electron beam irradiation (EBI), however, was classified into two different types of dislocation loops: in A-site-excess (Ba,Ca)TiO3, contrasts of dislocation loops faded completely away; in BaTiO3 and B-site-excess (Ba,Ca)TiO3, fine-line contrasts remained. Dislocation loops with Burgers vectors of type 1/2〈100〉 and the resultant crystallographic shear (CS) structure with a displacement vector of type 1/2〈110〉 after EBI were proposed to interpret residual line images. Disappearance of these line images in A-site-excess (Ba,Ca)TiO3 strongly suggests preferential Ca ion site occupancy at the CS structure.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Crack-initiation sites and crack-propagation rates of small cracks in smooth specimens of alumina with two grain sizes have been studied. The principal results that have been obtained are as follows: (i) in most cases, the crack-initiation life comprises a large portion of the fatigue life, (ii) small cracks that are initiated in smooth specimens propagate with stress intensity factors that are much lower than the apparent threshold stress intensity factors (KImax) of artificial cracks that are 200 µm in length, and (iii) the critical crack lengths beyond which the crack-propagation rate is described uniquely by KImax are 120 µm for fine-grained alumina and 250 µm for coarse-grained alumina.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: Background/Aim: Hepatic venous isolation and extracorporeal charcoal hemoperfusion (HVI-CHP) can reduce systemic exposure to hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy. The pre-existing HVI-CHP system has limited effectiveness against high-dose cisplatin; therefore, we designed a new system and evaluated its efficacy in a canine model. Materials and Methods: Cisplatin was administered via HAI under HVI-CHP. HVI-CHP was performed using one charcoal column in group I and two charcoal columns in group II; it was not performed in group III. The plasma cisplatin levels in the systemic circulation and at the column inlet and outlet, and the column extraction rate of were analyzed. Results: The column extraction rates of free and total cisplatin in group II were significantly higher than those in group I. The systemic concentration of free cisplatin was significantly lower in group II than in groups I and III after HAI. No significant differences were observed in cisplatin concentrations in the liver tissue among all groups. Conclusion: A novel HVI-CHP system for HAI of cisplatin was successfully developed.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Background/Aim: The present study investigated the impact of the lymph node ratio (LNR) on survival and recurrence in patients with pancreatic cancer after curative surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: This study included 189 patients who underwent curative surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer between 2005 and 2014. The risk factors for overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were identified. Results: A lymph node ratio of 0.1 was considered to be the optimal cut-off point for classification based on the 3-year and 5-year survival rates. The OS rates at three and five years after surgery were 34.4% and 28.2% in the LNR 〈0.1 group, respectively, and 23.1% and 5.8% in the LNR ≥0.1 group, which amounted to a statistically significant difference (p=0.003). The RFS rates at one and three years after surgery were 26.6% and 20.5% in the LNR 〈0.1 group, respectively, and 8.0% and 0% in the LNR ≥0.1 group, which was a significant difference (p=0.001). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the LNR was a significant independent risk factor for both the OS and RFS. Conclusion: The LNR was a risk factor for overall survival in patients who underwent curative surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. It is necessary to develop strategies to effectively utilize the lymph node metastasis status.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background/Aim: Past studies have suggested that adjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) provides decreased tumor relapse and longer survival in patients with curatively resected colon cancer. We report the first evidence of the feasibility of adjuvant CAPOX in Japanese patients with early colon cancer. Patients and Methods: Eligible patients had histologically-confirmed stage II/III colon cancer and received curative resection. The primary endpoint was completion rate of treatment after 8 cycles of adjuvant CAPOX. Results: Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this study. The completion rate of CAPOX and oxaliplatin were 77.8% and 61.1%, respectively. The incidence of grade ≥3 adverse events was neutropenia (n=6), thrombocytopenia (n=3), nausea (n=5), hand-foot syndrome (n=1) and peripheral sensory neuropathy (n=1). Three-year disease-free survival for stage II patients and stage III patients were 100% and 79.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Adjuvant CAPOX can be safely administered to Japanese patients with stage II/III colon cancer.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-05-31
    Description: Background/Aim: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) induces the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines as a late-acting mediator of inflammation. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a typical inflammation-related cancer. However, little is known about the relationship between HCC and HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products). This study analyzes the clinicopathological relevance of HMGB1 expression level and the effect of HMGB1 expression on the characteristics of HCC. Materials and Methods: Samples from 75 HCC patients including 13 with positive hepatitis B surface antigen and 36 with hepatitis C antibody were studied. The expression of HMGB1 in paired cancer and non-cancerous tissues from patients with HCC was assessed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. Quantitative RT-PCR data were analyzed in association with the clinicopathological factors of patients with HCC. Results: The expression of HMGB1 mRNA in HCC was high in well-differentiated tumors, but declined as tumors dedifferentiated to moderately and poorly differentiated HCC. The levels of HMGB1 mRNA showed a negative correlation with the presence of portal invasion (p=0.005) and the rise of serum PIVKA-II (p=0.034). There was no clear correlation between HMGB1 expression and proliferation activity of HCC using Ki-67 staining. Conclusion: In HCC, HMGB1 expression level correlated inversely with tumor differentiation. The RAGE-HMGB1 interaction may play a greater role in the early stages of HCC tumorigenesis than during cancer development.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: Background/Aim: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is frequently used in colorectal cancer treatment, but with limited success. The aim of the present study was to explore the cytotoxic effects of 5-FU, in combination with inhibition of doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1), a tumor stem cell marker that regulates pro-survival signaling in colorectal cancer cells, in the human colon cancer cell line, COLO-320. Materials and Methods: The effects of 5-FU treatment plus Dclk1 inhibition on the phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), cell cycle, DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell survival in COLO-320 cells were evaluated. Results: Combined treatment with 5-FU and a Dclk1 inhibitor, LRRK2-IN-1 (LRRK), decreased 5-FU-induced phosphorylation of Chk1 and canceled 5-FU-induced cell-cycle arrest at the S phase. Combined treatment with 5-FU and LRRK failed to induce poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) cleavage, but tended to decrease cell survival compared to individual treatment with 5-FU or LRRK. Conclusion: These results indicate that a combination of 5-FU and LRRK may be an effective, novel approach for colorectal cancer therapy.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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