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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Objectives Ischaemic heart diseases (IHDs) are a leading cause of death worldwide. Although prescribing according to guidelines improves health outcomes, it remains suboptimal. We determined whether interventions targeted at healthcare professionals are effective to enhance prescribing and health outcomes in patients with IHDs. Methods We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 31 August 2017. We included original studies of interventions targeted at healthcare professionals to enhance prescribing guideline-recommended medications for IHDs. We only included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Main outcomes were the proportion of eligible patients receiving guideline-recommended medications, the proportion of patients achieving target blood pressure and target low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)/cholesterol level and mortality rate. Meta-analyses were performed using the inverse-variance method and the random effects model. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results We included 13 studies, 4 RCTs (1869 patients) and 9 cluster RCTs (15 224 patients). 11 out of 13 studies were performed in North America and Europe. Interventions were of organisational or professional nature. The interventions significantly enhanced prescribing of statins/lipid-lowering agents (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.42, P=0.004), but not other medications (aspirin/antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers and the composite of medications). There was no significant association between the interventions and improved health outcomes (target LDL-C and mortality) except for target blood pressure (OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.93; P=0.008). The evidence was of moderate or high quality for all outcomes. Conclusions Organisational and professional interventions improved prescribing of statins/lipid-lowering agents and target blood pressure in patients with IHDs but there was little evidence of change in other outcomes. PROSPERO registration number CRD42016039188 .
    Keywords: Open access
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 61 (1987), S. 431-433 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Silicon nitride films have been prepared by excimer laser photolysis of ammonia/silane or ammonia/disilane mixtures at temperatures in the range 225–625 °C in a hot-walled low-pressure reactor. The highest-quality films, deposited at 225 °C, have high breakdown-field strength, Ebd=8.8 Mv cm−1, low midgap interface-state-trap densities, Nit=1.7×1011 eV−1 cm−2, and a dielectric constant of ε=4.8.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This article gives a short summary of the performances of the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) so far built by the Grenoble laboratory; emphasis is given to the high B field Caprice source, a compact in size source delivering high charge states and high intensities. Both the continuous regime of operation, and the pulsed regime having performances enhanced by the afterglow effect, as well as other noticeable effects, are surveyed. The next part of the article deals with the analysis of the data and our present understanding of the ECRIS behavior. At last the present trends of development of ECRIS are examined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Various factors affecting divergence of an ion beam extracted from a broad-beam electron cyclotron resonance ion source are studied. The source has three graphite grid extraction optics providing an 18-cm ion beam. A simple apparatus and method is used to investigate the beam divergence as a function of source pressure, magnetic field, microwave power, beam energy, and suppression voltage. We discovered that the beam divergence ranges from ±4° to ±8°. We also noticed that, considering a 10% experimental error, suppression voltage does not strongly affect the beam divergence.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 57 (1990), S. 1248-1250 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: It is demonstrated that the thickness limit of a thin nitride film which can withstand reoxidation is reduced to about 3.5 nm when it is deposited in situ on a thin-deposited oxide film. The deposited oxide apparently provides a better surface for nitride nucleation and initial growth. Using this finding an oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) film as thin as 4.6 nm was fabricated and shown to have good electrical properties and low defect density. The current leakage through the film was close to the acceptable limit in dynamic-random-access-memory technology. It was also found that electron trapping is substantially higher in ONO films produced by reoxidation than in films having a top deposited oxide.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: This letter describes a novel structure for very large scale integrated contact and interconnect technology that involves selective deposition of W on self-aligned TiN/TiSi2. The TiN layer serves to protect reaction between WF6 and TiSi2 and underlying Si during W deposition as well as to promote adhesion of W layer and minimize contact resistance. The selective deposition of W on TiN, very difficult with conventional hydrogen reduction process, is accomplished by employing a recently developed silane reduction process. The structure prevents silicon consumption leading to the encroachment commonly found in tungsten deposited directly on silicon in very shallow junctions. It is demonstrated that such a structure results in low contact resistance and junction leakages and is applicable to subhalf-micron devices. Tungsten with low resistivity of 8–9 μΩ cm can be achieved at room temperature with the resulting drop by a factor of 3–4 at liquid-nitrogen temperature making the structure more attractive for low-temperature application.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 65 (1989), S. 1724-1728 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have studied the kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of SiGe alloys deposited epitaxially onto Si substrates by low-temperature chemical vapor deposition. Ge is shown to enhance oxidation rates by a factor of about 3 in the linear regime, and to be completely rejected from the oxide so that it piles up at the SiO2/SiGe interface. We demonstrate that Ge plays a purely catalytic role, i.e., it enhances the reaction rate while remaining unchanged itself. Electrical properties of the oxides formed under these conditions are presented, as well as microstructures of the oxide/substrate, Ge-enriched/SiGe substrate, and SiGe/Si substrate interfaces, and x-ray photoemission studies of the early stages of oxidation. Possible mechanisms are discussed and compared with oxidation of pure silicon.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 61 (1987), S. 1947-1956 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The relation between positive-charge accumulation at the Si-SiO2 interface and the occurrence of high-field breakdown in metal-oxide-silicon structures has been investigated. Oxides having different hole-trapping properties were prepared with the addition of short rapid thermal anneals in O2. Experiments testing hole trapping, high-field stressing, the initial current transients at constant gate voltage, and breakdown statistics were performed on these oxides to examine the correlation between positive charge and breakdown. The conclusion is that positive-charge generation is only one of the processes occurring during high-field stress but is not the main cause for breakdown. Large current increases were observed for oxides that have large hole-trapping efficiencies, but the current increase is followed by fast current decay. The mechanism causing the current decay was investigated and was found to be an intrinsic mechanism which is related to the neutralization of the positive charge. These processes always accompany the formation of positive charge and explain why the effectiveness of the positive charge in causing current runaway is inhibited.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The 1.2 T–14.5 GHz ECR Caprice source is an upgrade version of previous Caprice sources where the three main ingredients of an ECR ion source of multicharged ions have been optimized: (i) the magnetic configuration has higher axial fields (1.4–1.45 T at the mirror throats) and radial field (1.05 T at the wall inside the plasma chamber) as well as higher mirror ratios, (ii) the 14.5 GHz rf frequency is convenient to higher magnetic fields, and (iii) more efficient electron sources allow the electron density to reach higher values, and thus high extracted ion currents (both first stage and wall coating). Emphasis is given to the metallic elements, the source is able to produce 10 eμA of Ca14+, 3 eμA of Fe17+ and Ni20+, 1 eμA of U37+, while being able to deliver 1130 eμA of O6+, 190 eμA of O7+, and 100 eμA of Ar12+. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 96 (1992), S. 3177-3182 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We introduce a class of membrane diffusion models which consists of an impermeable slab punctured by transmembrane pores which are constructed by continuous random-walk algorithms. These formally infinite tortuosity models closely resemble low tortuosity models in their steady-state flux and total transient uptake. The sharpest contrast between random and homogeneous membranes is in the stretched exponential (subdiffusive) decay [exp(−tα), α=1/2] of the transient diffusive flux for the random-pore models vs simple exponential decay [exp(−t)] for homogeneous membranes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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