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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-11-16
    Description: For 10,000 years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars approximately 1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes involved in RNA processing and regulation. Genes associated with immune response and olfaction exhibit fast evolution. Pigs have the largest repertoire of functional olfactory receptor genes, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The pig genome sequence provides an important resource for further improvements of this important livestock species, and our identification of many putative disease-causing variants extends the potential of the pig as a biomedical model.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3566564/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3566564/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Groenen, Martien A M -- Archibald, Alan L -- Uenishi, Hirohide -- Tuggle, Christopher K -- Takeuchi, Yasuhiro -- Rothschild, Max F -- Rogel-Gaillard, Claire -- Park, Chankyu -- Milan, Denis -- Megens, Hendrik-Jan -- Li, Shengting -- Larkin, Denis M -- Kim, Heebal -- Frantz, Laurent A F -- Caccamo, Mario -- Ahn, Hyeonju -- Aken, Bronwen L -- Anselmo, Anna -- Anthon, Christian -- Auvil, Loretta -- Badaoui, Bouabid -- Beattie, Craig W -- Bendixen, Christian -- Berman, Daniel -- Blecha, Frank -- Blomberg, Jonas -- Bolund, Lars -- Bosse, Mirte -- Botti, Sara -- Bujie, Zhan -- Bystrom, Megan -- Capitanu, Boris -- Carvalho-Silva, Denise -- Chardon, Patrick -- Chen, Celine -- Cheng, Ryan -- Choi, Sang-Haeng -- Chow, William -- Clark, Richard C -- Clee, Christopher -- Crooijmans, Richard P M A -- Dawson, Harry D -- Dehais, Patrice -- De Sapio, Fioravante -- Dibbits, Bert -- Drou, Nizar -- Du, Zhi-Qiang -- Eversole, Kellye -- Fadista, Joao -- Fairley, Susan -- Faraut, Thomas -- Faulkner, Geoffrey J -- Fowler, Katie E -- Fredholm, Merete -- Fritz, Eric -- Gilbert, James G R -- Giuffra, Elisabetta -- Gorodkin, Jan -- Griffin, Darren K -- Harrow, Jennifer L -- Hayward, Alexander -- Howe, Kerstin -- Hu, Zhi-Liang -- Humphray, Sean J -- Hunt, Toby -- Hornshoj, Henrik -- Jeon, Jin-Tae -- Jern, Patric -- Jones, Matthew -- Jurka, Jerzy -- Kanamori, Hiroyuki -- Kapetanovic, Ronan -- Kim, Jaebum -- Kim, Jae-Hwan -- Kim, Kyu-Won -- Kim, Tae-Hun -- Larson, Greger -- Lee, Kyooyeol -- Lee, Kyung-Tai -- Leggett, Richard -- Lewin, Harris A -- Li, Yingrui -- Liu, Wansheng -- Loveland, Jane E -- Lu, Yao -- Lunney, Joan K -- Ma, Jian -- Madsen, Ole -- Mann, Katherine -- Matthews, Lucy -- McLaren, Stuart -- Morozumi, Takeya -- Murtaugh, Michael P -- Narayan, Jitendra -- Nguyen, Dinh Truong -- Ni, Peixiang -- Oh, Song-Jung -- Onteru, Suneel -- Panitz, Frank -- Park, Eung-Woo -- Park, Hong-Seog -- Pascal, Geraldine -- Paudel, Yogesh -- Perez-Enciso, Miguel -- Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo -- Reecy, James M -- Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra -- Rohrer, Gary A -- Rund, Lauretta -- Sang, Yongming -- Schachtschneider, Kyle -- Schraiber, Joshua G -- Schwartz, John -- Scobie, Linda -- Scott, Carol -- Searle, Stephen -- Servin, Bertrand -- Southey, Bruce R -- Sperber, Goran -- Stadler, Peter -- Sweedler, Jonathan V -- Tafer, Hakim -- Thomsen, Bo -- Wali, Rashmi -- Wang, Jian -- Wang, Jun -- White, Simon -- Xu, Xun -- Yerle, Martine -- Zhang, Guojie -- Zhang, Jianguo -- Zhang, Jie -- Zhao, Shuhong -- Rogers, Jane -- Churcher, Carol -- Schook, Lawrence B -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 249894/European Research Council/International -- 5 P41 LM006252/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- 5 P41LM006252/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- BB/E010520/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/E010520/2/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/E010768/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/E011640/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/G004013/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/H005935/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/I025328/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0900950/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P20-RR017686/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P30 DA018310/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R13 RR020283A/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R13 RR032267A/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R21 DA027548/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R21 HG006464/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI083196/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Nov 15;491(7424):393-8. doi: 10.1038/nature11622.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, De Elst 1, 6708 WD, Wageningen, The Netherlands. martien.groenen@wur.nl〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23151582" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Demography ; Genome/*genetics ; Models, Animal ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Phylogeny ; Population Dynamics ; Sus scrofa/*classification/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-10-06
    Description: Some planetary systems harbour debris disks containing planetesimals such as asteroids and comets. Collisions between such bodies produce small dust particles, the spectral features of which reveal their composition and, hence, that of their parent bodies. A measurement of the composition of olivine crystals (Mg(2-2x)Fe(2x)SiO(4)) has been done for the protoplanetary disk HD 100546 (refs 3, 4) and for olivine crystals in the warm inner parts of planetary systems. The latter compares well with the iron-rich olivine in asteroids (x approximately 0.29). In the cold outskirts of the beta Pictoris system, an analogue to the young Solar System, olivine crystals were detected but their composition remained undetermined, leaving unknown how the composition of the bulk of Solar System cometary olivine grains compares with that of extrasolar comets. Here we report the detection of the 69-micrometre-wavelength band of olivine crystals in the spectrum of beta Pictoris. Because the disk is optically thin, we can associate the crystals with an extrasolar proto-Kuiper belt a distance of 15-45 astronomical units from the star (one astronomical unit is the Sun-Earth distance), determine their magnesium-rich composition (x = 0.01 +/- 0.001) and show that they make up 3.6 +/- 1.0 per cent of the total dust mass. These values are strikingly similar to those for the dust emitted by the most primitive comets in the Solar System, even though beta Pictoris is more massive and more luminous and has a different planetary system architecture.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉de Vries, B L -- Acke, B -- Blommaert, J A D L -- Waelkens, C -- Waters, L B F M -- Vandenbussche, B -- Min, M -- Olofsson, G -- Dominik, C -- Decin, L -- Barlow, M J -- Brandeker, A -- Di Francesco, J -- Glauser, A M -- Greaves, J -- Harvey, P M -- Holland, W S -- Ivison, R J -- Liseau, R -- Pantin, E E -- Pilbratt, G L -- Royer, P -- Sibthorpe, B -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 4;490(7418):74-6. doi: 10.1038/nature11469.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium. bldevries.science@gmail.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23038467" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Selective growth of arrays of silicon-doped GaN (Si:GaN) pyramids for field emitter applications has been achieved. The electron emission characteristics of these arrays has been measured using techniques such as field emission, field emission energy distribution analysis (FEED), photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), and field emission electron microscopy (FEEM). The field emission current–voltage (I–V) results indicate an average threshold field as low as 7 V/μm for an emission current of 10 nA. It is suggested that the low threshold field value is a consequence of both the low work function of Si:GaN and the field enhancement of the pyramids. The results of the FEEM and FEED measurements indicate agreement with the field emission I–V characteristics. The FEED results indicate that the Si:GaN pyramids are conducting, and that no significant ohmic losses are present between the top contact to the array and the field emitting pyramids. The PEEM and FEEM images show that the emission from the arrays is uniform over a 150 μm field of view. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: CD8(+) T cells have a central role in antitumour immunity, but their activity is suppressed in the tumour microenvironment. Reactivating the cytotoxicity of CD8(+) T cells is of great clinical interest in cancer immunotherapy. Here we report a new mechanism by which the antitumour response of mouse CD8(+) T cells can be potentiated by modulating cholesterol metabolism. Inhibiting cholesterol esterification in T cells by genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of ACAT1, a key cholesterol esterification enzyme, led to potentiated effector function and enhanced proliferation of CD8(+) but not CD4(+) T cells. This is due to the increase in the plasma membrane cholesterol level of CD8(+) T cells, which causes enhanced T-cell receptor clustering and signalling as well as more efficient formation of the immunological synapse. ACAT1-deficient CD8(+) T cells were better than wild-type CD8(+) T cells at controlling melanoma growth and metastasis in mice. We used the ACAT inhibitor avasimibe, which was previously tested in clinical trials for treating atherosclerosis and showed a good human safety profile, to treat melanoma in mice and observed a good antitumour effect. A combined therapy of avasimibe plus an anti-PD-1 antibody showed better efficacy than monotherapies in controlling tumour progression. ACAT1, an established target for atherosclerosis, is therefore also a potential target for cancer immunotherapy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851431/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851431/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yang, Wei -- Bai, Yibing -- Xiong, Ying -- Zhang, Jin -- Chen, Shuokai -- Zheng, Xiaojun -- Meng, Xiangbo -- Li, Lunyi -- Wang, Jing -- Xu, Chenguang -- Yan, Chengsong -- Wang, Lijuan -- Chang, Catharine C Y -- Chang, Ta-Yuan -- Zhang, Ti -- Zhou, Penghui -- Song, Bao-Liang -- Liu, Wanli -- Sun, Shao-cong -- Liu, Xiaolong -- Li, Bo-liang -- Xu, Chenqi -- HL 60306./HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL060306/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):651-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17412. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, Shanghai Science Research Center, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, School of Life Sciences, Collaborative Innovation Center for Infectious Diseases, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Haven 03755, USA. ; Rheumatology and Immunology Department of ChangZheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. ; Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou 510060, China. ; College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430072, China. ; Department of Immunology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77054, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 100 Haike Road, Shanghai 201210, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982734" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetates/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase/antagonists & ; inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Animals ; Atherosclerosis/drug therapy ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*drug effects/*immunology/metabolism ; Cell Membrane/drug effects/metabolism ; Cholesterol/*metabolism ; Esterification/drug effects ; Female ; Immunological Synapses/drug effects/immunology/metabolism ; Immunotherapy/*methods ; Male ; Melanoma/*drug therapy/*immunology/metabolism/pathology ; Mice ; Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors/immunology ; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology/metabolism ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Sulfonic Acids/*pharmacology/therapeutic use
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Temperature-dependent optical absorption of cerium-doped gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (Gd2SiO5:Ce) has been measured and analyzed for impurity-ion-lattice coupling parameters and oscillator strengths. Although the spectrum consists of overlapping Ce3+ bands and Gd3+ lines, two well-resolved Ce3+ bands with 10 K maxima at 3.32 eV (peak a) and 3.61 eV (peak b) are amenable to spectral analysis. These bands, previously assigned to Ce3+ ions occupying crystallographically inequivalent substitutional sites, are characterized by Gaussian line shapes and temperature-dependent half widths that are well described by the linear model of impurity-ion-lattice coupling. Huang–Rhys [Proc. R. Soc. A 204, 404 (1950)] parameters of peaks a and b are 22.7 and 5.7, respectively, indicating strong ion-lattice coupling, with vibrational frequencies 1.83×1013 s−1 (peak a) and 5.07×1013 s−1 (peak b). Peak b centroid is approximately temperature independent, but peak a centroid shifts to higher energy with increasing temperature. This dependence is adequately described by including higher-order coupling terms in the ion-lattice interaction, although crystal-field contributions cannot be excluded. Absorption band oscillator strengths, f, are calculated from Smakula's [Z. Phys. 59, 603 (1930)] formula and knowledge of cerium concentration for the two inequivalent sites. In the interval 10–300 K, peak a f values range from (9.8 to 26.8)×10−4 and peak b f values vary from (7.8 to 5.8)×10−3. From the known correlation between oscillator strength and metal-ion-ligand separation, we identify peaks a and b as the seven- and nine-oxygen-coordinated sites, respectively. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Similarity among the thermally stimulated luminescence glow curves of undoped Lu2SiO5 and Ce3+-doped oxyorthosilicates possessing the monoclinic C2/c structure strongly suggests the luminescence traps are intrinsic in origin. They are most likely associated with the configuration of oxygen ions in the vicinity of not only the Ce3+ ion, as suggested in previous work, but also the host lanthanide ion. The optical absorption spectrum of pristine Lu2SiO5 shows the presence of intrinsic absorption centers that are enhanced upon x irradiation as seen in other oxides containing oxygen related point defects. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 86 (1999), S. 3973-3982 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: This study explores the field emission properties of nitrogen-doped diamond grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. Over 70 nitrogen-doped diamond samples were grown on silicon and molybdenum under varying process conditions. Under certain conditions, films can be grown which exhibit photoluminescence bands at 1.945 and 2.154 eV that are attributed to single substitutional nitrogen. Photoelectron emission microscopy with UV free electron laser excitation indicated a 0 or negative electron affinity. Field emission characteristics were measured in an ultrahigh vacuum with a variable distance anode technique. For samples grown with gas phase [N]/[C] ratios less than 10, damage from microarcs occurred during the field emission measurements. Samples grown at higher [N]/[C] content could be measured prior to an arcing event. Contrary to other reports on nitrogen-doped diamond, these measurements indicate relatively high threshold fields (〉100 V/μm) for electron emission. We suggest that the nitrogen in these films is compensated by defects. A defect-enhanced electron emission model from these films is discussed. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 85 (1999), S. 7340-7344 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The influence of substrate temperatures on the structure, morphology, magnetic properties, and surface composition of MnSb films prepared by hot-wall epitaxy are analyzed. All the films are found to be single phase with nickel arsenide (NiAs) crystal structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the core levels reveals that the surface oxidation of the films is not very much enhanced with increasing substrate temperature except for a variation in the concentration of Sb2O3 and MnO2 near the surface-air interface. The decrease in saturation magnetization for the films is attributed to an increase in the manganese oxide content as substrate temperature increases. It is also observed that preferential Mn segregation from the grains to the grain boundaries will reduce the magnetic coupling between grains and thus increase coercivity and decrease coercivity squareness. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The incorporation of silicon into boron nitride films (BN:Si) has been achieved during ion beam assisted deposition growth. A gradual change from cubic boron nitride (c-BN) to hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) was observed with increasing silicon concentration. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission, and field emission electron energy distribution experiments indicated that the observed electron transport and emission were due to hopping conduction between localized states in a band at the Fermi level for the undoped c-BN films and at the band tails of the valence band maximum for the BN:Si films. A negative electron affinity was observed for undoped c-BN films; this phenomenon disappeared upon silicon doping due to the transformation to h-BN. No shift of the Fermi level was observed in any BN:Si film; thus, n-type doping can be excluded. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 73 (2002), S. 1841-1844 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Si–N based membrane calorimeters are a promising technology for the study of thermal properties of small quantities of materials in both pulsed and steady-state magnetic fields to 60 T and beyond. We present results that demonstrate our ability to measure the heat capacity of thin film samples from 2–300 K in steady-state fields up to 8 T. These measurements include the magnetoresistance of the Pt and Nb–Si thermometers and focus on confirming that the thermal conductance of the Si–N membrane does not change significantly in magnetic fields. This means the thermal conductance needs to be measured only in zero field, reducing the measurement time in high field. This is particularly important for future measurements in fields up to 60 T. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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