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  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: With continuing scaling down in microelectronic devices, the current density and the power consumption in the devices must increase. Hence, device reliability under high current density is an issue for ultralarge-scale integration technology. This study investigates the heating behavior of the heavily doped Si channels under high current stress. Thermal and electrical characterization of the channels in bulk Si and in silicon-on-insulator were conducted. An abnormal asymmetrical heating along the channels in bulk Si has been observed. We propose a junction leakage mechanism to explain the phenomenon observed. Other asymmetrical thermal effects, such as electron–hole recombination and Peltier effect, have also been discussed. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have grown epitaxial anatase-TiO2 (001) films on La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (001) bottom electrodes using pulsed-laser deposition. The small lattice mismatch (0.5%) between the anatase-TiO2 and the La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 makes it possible to grow anatase-TiO2 films with excellent crystallinity on conductive metal oxides. The photovoltaic properties of the epitaxial anatase-TiO2 on the La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 were characterized using a Kelvin probe. The optical band-gap energy was found to be 3.05 eV. The dielectric properties of the epitaxial anatase-TiO2 films were characterized using a capacitor structure of Au/anatase-TiO2/La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 on a LaAlO3 substrate. The dielectric dispersion exhibited a power-law dependence, and the dielectric constant measured at room temperature and 1 MHz was 38. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 74 (1999), S. 641-643 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A technique for inducing white-light emission from organic multiheterostructures is proposed. The configuration of organic multiheterostructure white-light emitting diodes is ITO/TPD(50 nm)/BePP2(5 nm)/TPD(4 nm)/BePP2:rubrene(5 nm)/TPD(4 nm)/Alq3(10 nm)/Al. Triphenyldiamine derivative (TPD) is used as a hole-transporting layer and the potential barrier layers. Blue fluorescent phenylpyridine beryllium (BePP2), orange fluorescent rubrene, and green fluorescent aluminum complex (Alq3) are used as three primary colors. BePP2 and BePP2 doped with rubrene act as the potential wells sandwiched between TPD barrier layers, in which excitons are confined. Alq3 is used as an electron-transporting green-color emitter. The white-light emission spectrum covers a wide range of the visible region, and the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of the emitted light are (0.32, 0.38) at 9 V. The maximum brightness and luminous efficiency of this device are 4000 cd/m2 (at 17 V) and 0.4 lm/W, respectively. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 69 (1996), S. 3312-3314 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We propose and demonstrate a novel nonoptical technique for regulation of tip–sample distance in a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM). The fiber tip for the SNOM is attached to one prong of a quartz tuning fork. The fork is dithered with a gated sinusoidal signal. The vibration of the freely oscillating fiber tip, which manifests as the induced piezoelectric voltage on the fork electrodes, is monitored during the half-period of the gated sinusoid for which the fork is not driven. The time-multiplexing scheme, thus, allows the tuning fork to serve as a dither and a sensor with high Q factor, simultaneously. The gating technique could also potentially allow the SNOM to be used for the investigation of surface relaxation dynamics with high spatial resolution and submillisecond time resolution. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 68 (1996), S. 3784-3786 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In situ boron doped polycrystalline diamond films of very good quality were grown on both scratched n-Si(100) and Al2O3 substrates. Carrier concentration and Hall mobility are mainly contributed from the n-Si(100) substrate, rather than the boron doped polycrystalline diamond film, when n-Si(100) is chosen as the substrate. This indicates that the p-diamond/n-Si junction is unable to isolate current flowing from the boron doped polycrystalline diamond to the n-Si(100) substrate during Hall effect measurement. In contrast, carrier concentration and Hall mobility are reliable when Al2O3 is used as the insulating substrate for boron doped diamond deposition. The Hall mobility of the boron doped polycrystalline diamond film varies from 120 cm2/V s at a hole concentration of 1010/cm3 to 0.4 cm2/V s at 2×1015/cm3.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 69 (1996), S. 1966-1968 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Strains of nearly 0.2% have been induced along [001] in unstressed crystals of Ni2MnGa with magnetic fields of 8 kOe applied at 265 K. These stains are associated with the superelastic motion of twin boundaries in the martensitic phase that is stable below about 274 K. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 68 (1996), S. 2155-2157 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Fcc-Co(110) and hcp-Co(11¯00) films of 200 A(ring) thickness were grown on MgO(110) and bcc-Cr(211)/MgO(110), respectively, by the molecular beam epitaxy method. Reflection high energy diffraction was used to in situ characterize the crystal structure. Co films grown directly on MgO(110) were pseudomorphic fcc structure. Twofold symmetrical hcp-Co(11¯00) films on top of the bcc-Cr(211)/MgO(110) were grown and confirmed. The magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) was used to investigate the magnetic anisotropy of these films. The magnetization of these samples was found to be in-plane. The magnetization of fcc-Co films has cubic symmetry with texture induced uniaxial anisotropy. For hcp-Co(11¯00)/bcc-Cr(211) bilayer films, the magnetization was strongly anisotropic, but independent of the thickness of the Cr layer. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 68 (1996), S. 2392-2394 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have applied frequency-dependent capacitance measurements and admittance spectroscopy on GaN:Mg to study the electronic states associated with Mg doping. Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy GaN:Mg samples with two different Mg doping levels were grown and thermally annealed in nitrogen. Lateral dot-and-ring Schottky diodes using Au/Ti were fabricated. Frequency-dependent measurements on these diodes show that the capacitance is reduced at a higher frequency, most likely due to the inability of a deep center to maintain an equilibrium ionization state under a high-frequency modulation. Admittance spectroscopy, in which the conductance is monitored as a function of temperature, verifies the existence of one impurity-related acceptor level in the higher Mg-doped sample with an activation energy of 136 meV. For the lower Mg-doped sample, two acceptor levels at 124 and 160 meV were observed. We believe these levels are most probably associated with the Mg acceptor state itself, possessing energy levels which are very close to the results previously reported in the literature. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 67 (1995), S. 3587-3589 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: β-PdAl was studied as a Schottky contact to metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown In0.52Al0.48As. Intermetallic alloy β-PdAl was chosen in order to utilize the Al–In exchange reaction which may occur between PdAl and In0.52Al0.48As, which would result in an enhanced Schottky barrier height. I–V, C–V, and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) were used to determine the contact characteristics. The contact barrier height (φb) was measured by I–V and C–V methods after different annealing conditions, and good agreement between I–V and C–V results were obtained. The largest φb value is 0.67 eV from I–V measurement (0.69 eV from C–V) after the diode was annealed at 450 °C for 1 min. DLTS measurements were carried out to examine the effect of deep traps in the In0.52Al0.48As layer. Two deep levels were found, but the concentrations are lower than the intrinsic donor concentration obtained from the Hall method. The activation energies for these two deep levels obtained from an Arrhenius plot are 0.38 and 0.65 eV, respectively. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 66 (1995), S. 55-57 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A systematic study of the substrate orientation effect on crystalline quality of GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low substrate temperature (215 °C) was performed using double-crystal x-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscopy. The crystal quality was found to be strongly correlated with substrate orientations. Layers of high crystalline perfection with excess arsenic were obtained on both GaAs(100) and (311)B substrates, while columnar polycrystalline growth was observed on (211)B substrate. The transition from a single crystalline state to a polycrystalline state was clearly demonstrated by a 0.5 μm GaAs layer on (111)B surface. Surface kinetic factors are believed to play important roles during the low temperature growth. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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