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  • 1
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Thermally stable, low-resistance PdGe-based ohmic contacts to high–low doped n-GaAs have been developed. The lowest contact resistance obtained is two times lower than that of previously reported PdGe ohmic contacts. The contacts are thermally stable even after isothermal annealing for 5 h at 400 °C under atmosphere ambient. X-ray diffraction results and Auger depth profiles show that the good PdGe-based ohmic contact is due to the formation of both AuGa and TiO compounds. The AuGa compound enhances the creation of more Ga vacancies, followed by the incorporation of Ge into Ga vacancies, and the TiO compound suppresses As outdiffusion from the GaAs substrate, respectively. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Interfacial microstructures of Pd/Ge/Ti/Au ohmic contact to n-type GaAs have been investigated using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and the results are used to interpret the electrical properties. Annealing at 300 °C yields a contact resistance of 0.62 Ω mm and the layer structure is changed to GaAs/PdGe/Au4Ti/TiO. The ohmic contact is formed through a solid phase regrowth of GaAs heavily doped with Ge below the PdGe layer. At 380 °C, the lowest contact resistance of 0.43 Ω mm is obtained. The layer structure is changed to GaAs/(Ge–Ti)/PdGe/TiO. Spikes composed of Au and AuGa are found at the grain boundaries of the PdGe compound. The formation of AuGa at 380 °C reduces the contact resistance through the creation of more Ga vacancies at the interface of GaAs/PdGe, and the incorporation of elemental Ge. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 86 (1999), S. 6451-6461 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: High-quality indium–tin–oxide (ITO) thin films (200–850 nm) have been grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on glass substrates without a postdeposition annealing treatment. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of these films have been investigated as a function of target composition, substrate deposition temperature, background gas pressure, and film thickness. Films were deposited from various target compositions ranging from 0 to 15 wt % of SnO2 content. The optimum target composition for high conductivity was 5 wt % SnO2+95 wt % In2O3. Films were deposited at substrate temperatures ranging from room temperature to 300 °C in O2 partial pressures ranging from 1 to 100 mTorr. Films were deposited using a KrF excimer laser (248 nm, 30 ns full width at half maximum) at a fluence of 2 J/cm2. For a 150-nm-thick ITO film grown at room temperature in an oxygen pressure of 10 mTorr, the resistivity was 4×10−4 Ω cm and the average transmission in the visible range (400–700 nm) was 85%. For a 170-nm-thick ITO film deposited at 300 °C in 10 mTorr of oxygen, the resistivity was 2×10−4 Ω cm and the average transmission in the visible range was 92%. The Hall mobility and carrier density for a 150-nm-thick film deposited at 300 °C were 27 cm2/V s and 1.4×1021 cm−3, respectively. A reduction in the refractive index for ITO films can be achieved by raising the electron density in the films, which can be obtained by increasing the concentration of Sn dopants in the targets and/or increasing deposition temperature. Atomic force microscopy measurements of these ITO films indicated that their root-mean-square surface roughness (∼5 Å) was superior to that of commercially available sputter deposited ITO films (∼40 Å). The PLD ITO films were used to fabricate organic light-emitting diodes. From these structures the electroluminescence was measured and an external quantum efficiency of 1.5% was calculated. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Heteroepitaxial Y2O3 films were grown on an Si(111) substrate by ion assisted evaporation in an ultrahigh vacuum, and their properties such as crystallinity, film stress, and morphological change were investigated using the various measurement methods. The crystallinity was assessed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction. Interface crystallinity was also examined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) channeling and transmission electron microscopy. The strain of the films was measured by RBS channeling and XRD. Surface and interface morphological characteristics were observed by atomic force microscopy and x-ray scattering method. By comparing the interface with the surface characteristics, we can conclude that many defects at the interface region were generated by interface interaction between the yttrium metal and Si substrate. Moreover, the film quality dominantly depended on the deposition temperature. The crystallinity was greatly improved and the surface roughness was drastically decreased in the temperature range 500–600 °C. On the other hand, in the temperature range 600–700 °C, the compressive stress and film density were further increased, and the island size decreased. Also, the shape of the surface islands was transformed from elliptical to triangular. The film stress was found primarily at the interface area because of the interaction between yttrium and Si substrate. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 58 (1987), S. 1115-1115 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Two innovations have been applied to improve a method developed earlier for the production of field-ion tips. The new technique produces sharper, smaller tips with low-aspect ratio shanks to fulfill the specific needs of scanning tunneling microscopy.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 79 (2001), S. 2429-2431 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Superconducting MgB2 thin films were prepared on Al2O3(0001) and MgO(100) substrates. Boron thin films were deposited by the electron-beam evaporation followed by postannealing process with magnesium. Proper postannealing conditions were investigated to grow good superconducting MgB2 thin films. The x-ray diffraction patterns showed randomly oriented growth of MgB2 phase in our thin films. The surface morphology was examined by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. Critical current density (JC) measured by transport method was about 107 A/cm2 at 15 K, and superconducting transition temperature (TC) was ∼39 K in the MgB2 thin films on Al2O3. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We studied the turn-off transient behavior of electron- and proton-irradiated silicon p–n junction diodes. Electron-irradiated n+–p diodes showed transient current peaks at lower reverse voltages. When the forward current was increased, the height and the number of the peaks increased, and at each peak the diode voltage showed a sharp decrease. We explain that the increased ionization coefficients by the electron irradiation caused the current peak to appear during the turn-off transients. p+–n diodes irradiated under the same condition did not show the large peak. This suggests that only the defects in the p-type silicon are responsible for the current peaks. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A fully sealed field-emission display 4.5 in. in size has been fabricated using single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT)-organic binders. The fabricated displays were fully scalable at low temperature, below 415 °C, and CNTs were vertically aligned using paste squeeze and surface rubbing techniques. The turn-on fields of 1 V/μm and field emission current of 1.5 mA at 3 V/μm (J=90 μA/cm2) were observed. Brightness of 1800 cd/m2 at 3.7 V/μm was observed on the entire area of a 4.5 in. panel from the green phosphor-indium–tin–oxide glass. The fluctuation of the current was found to be about 7% over a 4.5 in. cathode area. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Arsenic-doped Si(001) layers with concentrations CAs up to 5×1018 cm−3 were grown on Si(001)2×1 at temperatures Ts=575–900 °C by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy (GS-MBE) using Si2H6 and AsH3. This is almost an order of magnitude higher than the initially reported "maximum attainable" saturated CAs value for GS-MBE from hydride precursors. At constant JAsH3/JSi2H6, CAs decreases, while the film growth rate RSi increases, with Ts. Temperature programmed desorption measurements show that As segregates strongly to the growth surface and that the observed decrease in CAs at high film growth temperatures is primarily due to increasingly rapid arsenic desorption from the segregated layer. Decreasing Ts enhances As incorporation. However, it also results in lower film growth rates due to higher steady-state As surface coverages which, because of the lone-pair electrons associated with each As adatom, decrease the total dangling bond coverage and, hence, the Si2H6 adsorption rate. At constant Ts, CAs increases, while RSi decreases, with increasing JAsH3/JSi2H6. All incorporated As resides at substitutional electrically active sites for concentrations up to 3.8×1018 cm−3, the highest value yet reported for Si(001):As growth from hydride source gases, and temperature-dependent electron mobilities are equal to those of the best bulk Si:As. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We fabricated a homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal display with positive dielectric anisotropy, whose on and off states are controlled by in-plane field. The rubbing-free device, dark in voltage-off state, reveals bright uniformity in all directions due to the dual domainlike director configuration in the voltage-on state. The electro-optic characteristics of one prototype with excellent viewing angles are reported herein. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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