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  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (6)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: One of the problems in spin valve (SV) is the thermal stability of exchange coupling between the pinned magnetic layer and the antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer. During operating in actual hard disk drives, the pinned direction tends to cant toward the longitudinal hard magnet direction and as a result, the output voltage drops. In this study we examine the amount of the cant by the heat and field in SV which used different pinned layer material. The sample we used is Ta(5)/NiFe(9)/Co(1)/Cu(2.7)/pinned layer/AFM/Ta(5) unit nanometers. The pinned layer is three kinds—Co(2), Co(1)/NiFe(1.7), NiFe(3.5), and AFM is two kinds of Ru3Rh15Mn(12 nm), Ru3Rh15Mn(8 nm). The pinned-Co–SV has a larger increase of canting degree than the pinned-Co/NiFe–SV and the pinned-NiFe–SV. The longer the SV is exposed to heat and magnetic field, the more the cant increases. It is likely due to the change of the local pinned direction which in turn may be due to the aftereffect in the minute AFM grains during the heating process.© 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In this work, submicron-size (down to 0.273 μm2) spin–dependent tunnel junctions with resistance as low as ∼30 Ω μm2 have been fabricated, where the tunneling barrier of AlOx was formed by in situ natural oxidation. These junctions annealed at 250 °C for 5 h showed tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of 14.3% and 25.8% for the pinned layers of CoFe/RuRhMn and CoFe/PtMn, respectively, while the TMR is further increased to 31.6% for a synthetic antiferromagnetic pinned layer of CoFe/Ru/CoFe/PtMn due to less interdiffusion at CoFe/Ru interface. The investigation has indicated that the growth of ultrathin Al layer is very sensitive to the surface roughness of bottom ferromagnetic electrode, and large surface roughness leads to small junction resistance. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Interdiffusion and interfacial reaction between a sputter-deposited YBa2Cu3Ox thin film and substrates (MgO, sapphire, quartz, and Si) have been investigated by 2.7 MeV 4He+ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The diffusivities of Cu in the substrates and of the substrate elements (Mg, Al, and Si) in the Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films have been determined over the annealing temperature range from 876 to 1226 K in an oxygen atmosphere. Among three metallic elements of Y, Ba, and Cu, Cu diffuses the fastest into the substrates. Copper silicide is observed in the interfacial region between the film and the Si substrate. Among these substrates, MgO is suggested to be the most stable on annealing.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 104 (1996), S. 714-726 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Photostimulated desorptions (PSD's) of CO, CO+, and CO− from a Pt surface are studied theoretically using Pt2–CO model cluster including image force correction. Calculations are performed by the single excitation configuration interaction and the symmetry adapted cluster (SAC)/SAC-CI methods. The PSD's of the ground state CO occur as the Menzel–Gomer–Redhead (MGR) process and those of CO+ (n cation) and excited (n→π*) CO* through the modified MGR process in which the upper repulsive potential curves are nonadiabatic; the process proceeds through a sequence of nonadiabatic transitions between the similar pertinent states embedded in the metal excited bands. The excited states as the desorption channels are characterized by the excitations from the Pt–CO bonding orbitals to the antibonding MO's: metal-adsorbate chemical bond cleavage by photons which leads to a repulsive potential is essential for the PSD. The electrostatic image force interaction plays only a minor role and the present result does not support the Antoniewicz model. The calculated excitation-energy thresholds for the CO, CO+, and CO* desorptions are 1.6∼2.6, 11.3, and 11.3–12.7 eV, respectively, which explains the energy thresholds and the fluence dependencies of the incident laser in the PSD experiments. On the other hand, the PSD giving CO− would occur with the energy range of 6.2–8.2 eV, one to two photon energy of the 193 nm (6.4 eV) laser. Since the upper nonadiabatic potential curves have shallow minima, in this case, the lifetime of the CO− species would be larger than those of the CO+ and CO* species. The present study clarifies the electronic structures of the desorbed CO+, CO−, and CO* species, which have not been identified experimentally. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Experiments on the longitudinal biasing of microsized magnetic tunnel junctions have been conducted using permanent magnets partially overlapping the junction area. The tunneling magnetoresistance ratio showed a strong dependency on the overlap length, since even a 10% overlap of the sensor length resulted in a 25% drop from its initial value without overlap. Analytical and micromagnetic analyses have demonstrated that this decrease comes from extra current channels, located in the regions below the permanent magnets, that shorted a large amount of the sense current from the central active region in the antiparallel magnetization state. The high uniaxial anisotropy field, induced by the permanent magnets in the overlapped regions, created particular magnetic configurations responsible for these low resistance paths. Several alternatives, using antiferromagnetic material in place of the permanent magnets or a modified design of the magnetic tunnel junction structure, are presented and discussed to prevent this extra current channel effect. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: In this work, the dielectric breakdown in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) was studied. The MTJ structure is Ta50/NiFe100/Co20/AlOx/Co30/RuRhMn100/Ta50 with the bottom lead of Ta50/Cu500/Ta50 and the top lead of Cu2000/Ta50 (in Å), where the tunneling barrier was formed by 2–20 min radical oxygen oxidation of a 10 Å-thick Al layer. The junctions with area from 2×2 to 20×20 μm2 were patterned using the photolithography process, leading to tunneling magnetoresistance up to 17.2% and resistance-area product ranging from 350 Ω μm2 to 200 kΩ μm2. The junctions studied show dc breakdown voltage from 0.7 to 1.3 V, depending on the junction area and the oxidation time. Long oxidation time up to 14 min and a small junction area results in a large dc breakdown voltage. The electrostatic discharge (ESD) of MTJs was tested by using a human body model. The ESD breakdown voltage increases with decreasing junction resistance. These results are discussed in terms of the E-model based on the field-induced distortion of atomic bonds in the oxide barrier. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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