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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 86 (1999), S. 1542-1547 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Using an Al/SiO2(wet)/Si0.9Ge0.1/n–Si/Al capacitor structure, effects of oxidation on bulk trap and interface states near the SiO2/SiGe interface are investigated. Two peaks at the energy levels of 0.23 eV (D1) and 0.40 eV (D2) below the conduction band edge are observed with the capacitance deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) method. The DLTS measurement results show a characteristic feature of interface states for the D1 peak. The interface state distribution obtained by the capacitance–voltage method also has a high density (6.9×1012/cm2 eV) peak at an energy level of 0.23 eV below the conduction band edge. The Si–O– dangling bonds are thought to be the source of the D1 peak. The annealing behaviors of the D2 peak show that D2 is a divacancy related bulk trap. The capture cross section and the trap density for the bulk trap D2 are 2.06×10−15/cm2 and 1.8×1014/cm3, respectively. The density of D2 is significantly reduced after low temperature postmetallization annealing. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: We have constructed a liquid He free SC-ECRIS and successfully extracted intense beams of various heavy ions. To improve its performance, we installed a negatively biased electrode in the plasma chamber and observed its effect on the beam intensity systematically. We measured the beam intensity and the current of biased electrode as a function of both the applied bias voltage and the electrode position. Using the negatively biased electrode, the beam intensity of highly charged Xe ions was strongly enhanced. Furthermore, both the beam intensity and the current of biased electrode oscillated strongly. The frequency became higher when increasing the magnitude of bias voltage. This result shows that the biased electrode causes a certain instability in the electron cyclotron resonance plasma, so that the beam intensity is enhanced. In this contribution, we present the results of our experiment and the discussions about possible mechanisms of such instability. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: It is proposed that the nucleation and growth of the amorphous phase through the solid-state amorphizing reaction in thin-film diffusion couples can be predicted by using the concept of effective driving force. The effective driving force consists of two factors: (i) the thermodynamic driving force given by maximum free-energy difference between the physical mixture of binary elements and the amorphous phase (ΔGmax), and (ii) the kinetic factor given by a ratio of the effective radius of the interstitial site in the host matrix to the atomic radius of the diffusing species (Rm/d). From the comparison of reported experimental results, it is shown that the criterion of effective driving force holds well for predicting the nucleation of the amorphous phase in metal/silicon systems as well as that of metal/metal systems. In addition, the concept of effective driving force holds well for predicting the growth tendency of the amorphous phase in metal/silicon systems. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 115 (2001), S. 446-453 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Ti bulk diffusion coefficients have been determined for Ti in single crystal MgO(100) for four types of samples: Ti evaporated onto MgO and Ti evaporated onto MgO that was pre-bombarded with 7 keV Cl+, Ar+, and Cr+, respectively. Diffusion was induced by annealing to 1000 °C following the evaporation or pre-bombardment. Diffusion penetration profiles were obtained by using secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling techniques. A model that includes a depth-dependent bulk diffusion coefficient was used to analyze the observed radiation enhanced diffusion (RED) effects. The bulk diffusion coefficients are of the order of 10−20 m2/s and are enhanced due to the defect structure inflected by the ion pre-bombardment. Different RED effects for the samples pre-bombarded with Cl+, Ar+, and Cr+ were observed despite their very similar ballistic implantation parameters. The diffusion model was extended to include the effects of lattice deformation, requirement of electrical neutrality, and chemical effects such as volatile compound formation. This extended model satisfactorily explains the RED differences observed for Cl+, Ar+, and Cr+ implantation. Our results show that RED is strongly influenced by the chemical properties of implanted ions. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 60 (1992), S. 853-855 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A quantum mechanical formalism for the excitonic photoluminescence linewidth in semiconductor alloys due to band gap fluctuations caused by the random distributions of alloy components is presented. Using a quantum mechanical description for the excitonic system, the mean deviation of its transition energy due to the statistical potential fluctuations is calculated using a first-order perturbation theory. We then apply this formalism to calculate the linewidth of the ground state excitonic transition as a function of composition. Specifically, the excitonic linewidth in AlxGa1−xAs alloy as a function of Al concentration is calculated and compared with earlier models and available low-temperature photoluminescence data.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 71 (1997), S. 3604-3606 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The atomic layer deposition technique has been applied to the growth of Al2O3 thin films on the substrates of Si(100), 100-nm-thick SiO2 covered Si(100) [SiO2/Si(100)], and 90-nm-thick TiN covered SiO2/Si(100). The growth rate of Al2O3 films was 0.19 nm/cycle and identical for all substrates employed under the surface controlled process. However, the optical properties of Al2O3 films were significantly affected by different substrates. The average interband-oscillator energy and refractive index parameter were determined to be 3.330 eV and 2.992×10−14 eV m2 for Al2O3 film grown on Si(100), while those for the film grown on SiO2/Si(100) were 4.492 eV and 2.074×10−14 eV m2, respectively. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Physics of Fluids 12 (2000), S. 1899-1910 
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The circulating flows formed inside a spherical drop under time-periodic nonuniform electric fields are considered. For simplicity, it is assumed that there are axisymmetric electric fields and that the flow fields are in the Stokes flow regime. An analytical solution of the streamfunction distribution inside and outside the drop is obtained. The flow field is found to be dependent on the frequency of the time-periodic electric field and the ratios of the material properties such as the viscosity, the electrical conductivity, and the electrical permittivity. As part of the solution, an analytical expression of the dielectrophoretic migration velocity of a drop under a time-periodic electric field is also obtained. The result shows an interesting physics—that dielectrophoretic migration is possible in a time-periodic electric field even in the situation where dielectrophoresis would be impossible in a static electric field. By using the analytical solution of the streamfunction, fluid mixing inside a drop is analyzed based on the Poincaré maps. The mass transfer enhancement factor due to fluid mixing has also been computed by solving the unsteady mass transfer equation numerically. The existence of an optimal frequency has been confirmed as in other mass transfer enhancement processes by time-periodic forcing. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 83 (1998), S. 5783-5786 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The thermal conductivities of α-Al2O3 and κ-Al2O3 wear-resistant coatings are measured using the 3ω method in the temperature range 80〈T〈600 K. The coatings are 13 μm thick and deposited by chemical vapor deposition on substrates of Co-cemented WC. The α-Al2O3 coating has a thermal conductivity comparable to sapphire at T〉300 K. The relatively small thermal conductivity of κ-Al2O3, a factor of ∼3 smaller than α-Al2O3, suggests that this metastable phase of alumina can be applied as an effective thermal barrier for cutting tools. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 73 (1993), S. 2848-2853 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have developed a variational formalism to calculate the effects of electric and magnetic fields on confined hydrogenic donor states in asymmetric coupled double quantum well structures. It is demonstrated that an electric field applied along the growth axis can easily shift the electron wave function from one quantum well across the center barrier into the neighboring well, without ejecting the electron from a confined donor state. Depending on donor location in the structure, binding energy can either increase or decrease under the applied electric field, as had been found in the case of single quantum wells, but with significantly greater rates of change in response to the external field. The magnetic field applied along the growth axis of the quantum well structure leads to additional quantum confinement, increasing both the donor binding energies and the transition energy between the 1s and 2p+ donor states. Effect of the relative size of the two coupled quantum wells on the donor binding energy is also discussed. Dipole moment and polarizability of the confined donor states are obtained simultaneously as well.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 73 (1993), S. 1788-1796 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A quantum statistical formalism has been developed for the excitonic luminescence linewidths and line shapes in semiconductor binary alloys due to band-gap fluctuations caused by the random distributions of the alloy components in an applied magnetic field. The virtual crystal approximation is used to estimate the local band-gap variations. The shifts of the excitonic transition energy due to the band-gap fluctuations are obtained using the first-order perturbation theory. A Gaussian line shape is obtained for the excitonic transition using standard statistical techniques. This formalism is applied to calculate the linewidths and line shapes associated with the ground-state excitonic transition as a function of alloy composition and magnetic-field strength in AlxGa1−xAs and InxGa1−xP alloys. The resulting linewidths and line shapes are in good agreement with the available low-temperature photoluminescence data; however, the calculated linewidths are consistently smaller than the measured values. The possible mechanisms responsible for this discrepancy are discussed. A comparison of excitonic linewidths obtained from the present theory with those calculated earlier is also presented.
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