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  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (4)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 76 (1994), S. 4209-4214 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Thermal emission of charges has been studied in Si3N4-GaAs structures which were prepared using direct plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. A comparison has been made of the effects of predeposition plasma treatments using hydrogen, argon, and a mixture of the two. Channel current transient spectroscopy was used in the temperature range 77–350 K. All of the samples exhibited electron emission from an interface-state continuum with energies that were consistent with the interface-state-band model proposed by Hasegawa. When argon and hydrogen were used together two extra processes were observed. One of these was due to an electron trap with an activation energy of 0.05 eV; this response was from states at the remote edge of the depletion region several thousand angstroms from the interface. The necessity for argon and hydrogen suggests that argon had created structural damage permitting the entry of hydrogen atoms to form electrically active complexes in the damaged region. The second process which had an activation energy of 0.05 eV resembled hole emission but, because hole injection was an unlikely process, this observation has been attributed to an interfacial polarization process exhibiting thermally activated relaxation. The corresponding dipole moment per unit area was 1.0×1011 C m. Since this mechanism also required the action of argon and hydrogen it was concluded that this was damage related, with electrical activity produced by the hydrogen atoms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 80 (1996), S. 6943-6953 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The depletion mode of opto-electronic modulation spectroscopy (OEMS), spectroscopically senses the electrical response to wavelength modulated monochromatic illumination as trap states in the depletion region of a semiconductor device are cyclically excited. The method is demonstrated using metal–Si3N4–GaAs field-effect transistors in which the charge in the gate depletion region is detected through its effect on the channel current. The optical transition energies of trap levels were revealed and the charge exchange mechanisms identified unambiguously by examining the phase of the detected signal with reference to the phase of the photon energy variation. In-phase responses originate from electron trap states while responses of opposite sign derive from hole traps. Many of the states corresponded closely in energy with ones previously reported in vapor-phase-epitaxy GaAs materials. Charge exchange with energetically discrete and continuously distributed traps is theoretically described when they are excited by photons having periodic energy modulation. The results indicate that the magnitude and phase of the OEMS response spectra are determined by the relative thermal and optical emission rates of trapped charges. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements made on the same samples could not reveal the responses of bulk levels that the OEMS technique showed were present; this was because the DLTS spectra were dominated by the interface continuum response. This illustrates clearly an important advantage of the technique. The method is equally applicable to other devices in which a space-charge region regulates the channel current. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 77 (1995), S. 5793-5801 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The static and dynamic properties of interface states between silicon nitride and n-GaAs have been studied. Comparisons have been made between interfaces that were untreated and ones which were plasma pretreated with Ar, N2, H2, and NH3. With the exception of hydrogen the pretreatments did not significantly alter the quiescent surface Fermi level position or the shape of the interface state distribution in the metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistor test structures. In all of the samples it required about 10 μs to complete the transfer of the induced charge from the bulk edge of the depletion region to the interface. Charge which had reached the interface equilibrated there within 100 ns. This charge gave rise to a relatively slow emission transient and had a thermal emission energy consistent with emission from the surface Fermi energy to the lower edge of an interface state band, in accord with the interface state band model. The extent in energy of this band depended on the surface treatment. The insensitivity of the emission time constant to both filling time and insulator electric field suggests that irrespective of the treatment the equilibrated charge remained at the interface and did not tunnel into the insulator. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 74 (1993), S. 7011-7013 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Optoelectronic modulation spectroscopy has been applied to field effect transistors. Spectra include responses from bulk levels as well as from the continuum of states at the insulator-semiconductor interface. States that are energetically deep in a continuum can be probed but would not be accessible to the Fermi level in an electrical measurement.
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