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  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: This study focuses on the influences of spreading multiple dipoles in the human head upon surface magnetic fields. A source model of the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) activity is proposed. This source model is expressed by spreading multiple dipoles which have time-varying dipole moments. Using this source model, spatio-temporal patterns of MEGs are simulated. Effects of spreading dipoles on spatio-temporal magnetic fields are investigated. The computer simulations show that the wave forms and amplitude of magnetic fields are affected significantly by the spread of the source and the conduction velocity of traveling dipoles. The latency of the peak magnetic field generated by spreading multiple dipoles varies with the measurements points on the surface of the head.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 86 (1999), S. 4930-4935 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Room-temperature recrystallization (self-annealing) of electroplated copper (Cu) films is investigated using three kinds of seed/barrier layers with nontexture and (111) texture. The as-plated films have almost the same texture as the seeds. The texture changes during self-annealing depend on the seed texture. The (111) texture of the self-annealing films increases for the film deposited on the nontexture seed layer, but decreases for the film deposited on (111) texture seed layers. For all the plated films, tensile stress increases after self-annealing, which corresponds to the film shrinkage. Recrystallization rate of the Cu film plated on the nontexture seed layer is higher than the one on the (111) texture seed. It is postulated that the reduction of grain boundary energy is the major driving force for film self-annealing and grain growth. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 6191-6193 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: There are no reported studies on the effects of magnetic fields on osteoblast collagen secretory processes during osteoblast differentiation. It is important to understand the effect of magnetic-field exposure on osteoblast collagen secretory processes since bone is remodeled continuously by bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. We hypothesized that a mixture of collagen and osteoblasts, an adherent cell, would orient perpendicular to a magnetic field since collagen fibers are known to orient perpendicular to magnetic fields. As the osteoblasts proliferate along the collagen fibers, the magnetic orientation of the osteoblasts will change to a perpendicular direction as well. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the magnetic orientation of osteoblasts and the magnetic orientation of an osteoblast and collagen mixture after exposure to 8 T magnetic fields, which were produced by a superconducting magnet, or without exposure to magnetic fields (control). We succeeded in producing the magnetic orientation of osteoblasts without collagen after long-term exposure to magnetic fields. We observed that osteoblasts oriented parallel to the magnetic fields, but a mixture of osteoblasts and collagen oriented perpendicular to the magnetic fields. The magnetic control of osteoblast orientation will help to clarify the underlying mechanisms of osteoblast differentiation, which is important for the development of potential medical and engineering applications such as tissue repair, artificial bone development, etc. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Mathematical Physics 34 (1993), S. 878-884 
    ISSN: 1089-7658
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: A mathematical model of a searchlight on a target with diffused background is constructed based on three-dimensional radiative transfer and integral operators. The main result is the recovery of the true target reflection from the measured reflection which consists of background light and multiscattering between atmospheric layer and the earth surface. An exact solution is solved and approximations are obtained by use of the assumption that the searchlight is strong and focused and the background light is weak and uniform in space in a given narrow frequency band of intensity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Nanostructures consisting of C60 molecules were fabricated on a GaSe/MoS2 heterostructure. A submonolayer film of a lamellar compound semiconductor GaSe was grown on a MoS2 substrate to form nanoscale holes or grooves surrounded by monolayer steps. Atomic force microscope (AFM) observation indicates that C60 molecules grow only in the bare MoS2 nanoregions at a substrate temperature of 180 °C. C60 molecules fill up those holes and grooves, and nanoscale C60 domains with polygonal shapes can be formed. This selective growth method can be combined with nanoscale patterning made by a scanning tunneling microscope or AFM to produce nanostructures of molecular crystals with designed shapes.© 1997 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 64 (1994), S. 146-148 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Accelerated aging tests were carried out under constant current conditions at an ambient temperature range of 100–150 °C for 670 nm band AlGaInP visible laser diodes. A degradation rate activation energy of 0.8 eV and an extrapolated lifetime of 106 h at 50 °C has been obtained. It is reported for the first time that lasing wavelength shifts of up to 20 nm to shorter wavelengths accompanied the threshold current increase. This is attributed to disordering of the natural superlattice in the GaInP active layer.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 62 (1993), S. 2114-2115 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We show that the low catastrophic optical damage power density observed for AlGaInP laser diodes (LDs) (1/2 to 1/2.9 that of AlGaAs LDs) is mainly attributable to the high thermal resistivities of the materials (5.5 times higher than for AlGaAs LDs) by using a thermal runaway model calculation.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Epilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with two-dimensional structures can be grown with molecular beam epitaxy onto other TMDs substrates without regard to lattice matching. Although there is no strong bonding between the epilayer and the substrate, the van der Waals interaction between the two hexagonally closest packed lattices results in a periodic distortion which, due to electronic effects, is prominently imaged with the scanning tunneling microscope.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A new method for studying grain boundaries of polycrystalline CdSe semiconductors by the use of photoelectrochemical etching (photoetching) has been described. The selectivity of the photoetching site of CdSe depends on the grain structure, for instance on the presence of grain boundaries or on crystallographic orientation of the grain bulk. After the photoetching treatment of CdSe under weak anodic polarization, the grain boundaries are left undissolved. This finding makes it possible to observe directly the grain boundaries as separated from the grain bulk. A transmission electron micrograph and a selected area diffraction pattern of the grain boundary are shown.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 65 (1994), S. 1370-1372 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Crystalline thin films of polytetrafluoroethylene were deposited on Si(100) wafers by F2 laser (157 nm) ablation in 200 mTorr Ar gas atmosphere. X-ray photoemission spectra indicated that the composition of the deposited films was similar to the source material. The surface morphology of films deposited at room temperature contained numerous fibrous structures in size of 100–400 nm, but they were smoothed out at elevated wafer temperature of ∼370 K, while the crystalline feature was still maintained. The refractive index was ∼1.35 at 633 nm.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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