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  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (18)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 67 (1995), S. 226-228 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: New features of the nanoscale structure of amorphous (a)-Si produced by ion-implantation-induced amorphization of crystalline (c)-Si have been determined by the technique of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Si ion energies up to 17 MeV were used to generate a thick amorphous layer (8 μm) on a c-Si wafer to enable the SAXS measurements. As-implanted and thermally annealed (up to 540 °C) a-Si were studied. No nanovoids were detected within a sensitivity of 0.1 vol %, but the atomic-scale structure produced a measurable diffuse scattering signal that decreased with increasing anneal temperatures. These measurements show that the known density deficit of 1.8% in a-Si relative to c-Si cannot be due to voids and that a-Si is homogeneous on nm length scale. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Using a combination of infrared absorption and small-angle x-ray scattering on hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloy films and efficiency measurements of solar cells with intrinsic layers prepared under nominally identical conditions to those for the deposition of the films, we observe a correlation between microstructure in the films and solar cell performance. With increasing microvoid density, both the initial and light-degraded performance of solar cells are found to deteriorate.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 55 (1989), S. 783-785 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The microstructure of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon alloys has been analyzed by small-angle x-ray scattering, infrared absorption, and density measurements. Decreasing density with C incorporation is due to microvoids about 0.6 nm in average radius, which are either approximately spherical in shape or randomly oriented nonspheres. The microvoid number density increases from about 5×1019/cm3 for a-Si:H to about 4×1020/cm3 for a-Si0.7 C0.3 :H. The CH3 species probably causes the enhanced microvoid formation in these alloys. A large fraction of the microvoid surfaces is not hydrogenated.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The base current of AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor subjected to a long burn-in test often exhibits an abnormal characteristic with an ideality factor of about 3, rather than a normal ideality factor between 1 and 2, in the midvoltage range. We develope an analytical model to investigate the physical mechanisms underlying such a characteristic. Consistent with the finding of an experimental work reported recently, our model calculations show that the recombination current in the base has an ideality factor of about 3 in the midvoltage range and that such a current is responsible for the observed abnormal base current in heterojunction bipolar transistor after a long burn-in test. Post-burn-in data measured from two different heterojunction bipolar transistors are also included in support of the model. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 77 (1995), S. 3839-3850 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The phase and composition depth distributions of a low-energy (0.7 keV), high-flux (2.5 mA/cm2) N implanted fcc AISI 304 stainless steel held at 400 °C have been investigated by step-wise Ar+ beam sputter removal in conjunction with conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). A metastable, fcc, high-N phase (γN), with both magnetic and paramagnetic characteristics, was found to be distributed in the N implanted layer generated by the low-energy, elevated temperature, implantation conditions. The magnetic γN was found to be ferromagnetic and was distributed in the highest N concentration region of the implanted layer (the top 0.5 μm) while the paramagnetic γN becomes predominant below 0.5 μm, where the N content is only slightly lower. The ferromagnetic state is linked to large lattice expansions due to high N contents (∼30 at.%) as determined by XRD and electron microprobe. The relatively uniform XRD N distribution to a depth of ∼1 μm suggests a sensitive dependence of the magnetic γN phase stability on N concentration and degree of lattice expansion. The XRD results also show that the N contents and depths depend on the polycrystalline grain orientation relative to the ion beam direction. The N was found to diffuse deeper in the (200) oriented polycrystalline grains compared to the (111) oriented grains and the N contents were significantly higher in the (200) planes relative to the (111) planes. The effect of compressive residual stresses (∼2 GPa) is considered. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis reveals quite clearly the uniform nature of the γN layers with a reasonably well defined interface between the γN layer and the substrate, suggesting uniform N contents with uniform layer thicknesses within a given grain. However, they also show significant variations in the γN layer thickness from one grain to the next along the N implanted layer, clearly supporting the XRD findings of the variation in N diffusivity with grain orientation. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films were deposited at high growth rates by increasing the rf power density in a (SiH4+H2) discharge, while powder formation due to gas phase polymerization was controlled by heating the cathode together with the anode. A combination of Raman scattering, infrared absorption, and small angle x-ray scattering experiments was used to study the short-range order and microstructure of films deposited in different (dusty or otherwise) plasma conditions. The results were correlated with initial and light-soaked photoresponse to demonstrate that films with more microstructure and less short-range order were generally poorer.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 74 (1993), S. 4363-4370 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The amorphization of an Fe-Zr multilayer film due to ion-beam mixing with protons and due to solid-state reaction is studied in detail using backscatter Mössbauer spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The local structure of the amorphous phase produced by both processes is found to be very similar based on the Mössbauer results. The dose dependence of the ion-beam-mixed phase fraction can be accounted for approximately by a collision cascade mixing model. Incomplete amorphization of the Fe was observed as a result of the proton irradiation with a large enough dose to produce apparent saturation whereas complete amorphization occurred for the identical multilayer structure via solid-state reaction. The latter was characterized by a thermal activation energy of 0.7 eV.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 60 (1986), S. 3466-3472 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Gallium arsenide single-crystal layers, doped with 119Sn-enriched tin, have been prepared by liquid-phase epitaxy and characterized by 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) and Hall measurements. Two Sn sites are observed by MS, and the population of one of these (site A) matches the carrier concentration in as-grown material, therefore allowing the MS parameters of this site to be positively identified as those of the SnGa donor in GaAs, and thereby showing no evidence for compensation. The population of the second type of Sn (site B) increases with the total Sn concentration, and this site is clearly electrically inactive. The site B MS parameters are similar to those of Sn3As2, SnAs, and β-Sn, thereby demonstrating that microprecipitates of these phases may often exist in heavily Sn-doped liquid-phase-epitaxial GaAs. Site B could also be due to clusters of Sn and/or Sn-As that are precursors to the formation of distinct precipitates of Sn3As, SnAs, or β-Sn. Annealing experiments yield a Sn-related acceptor that is very likely of the form SnGaVGa. In addition, precise MS parameters are reported for the intermetallic phases SnAs and Sn3As2.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 60 (1986), S. 1493-1500 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Information on phase transformations, solid solution alloying, compound formation, and residual stresses resulting from Ti implantation of AISI 52100 steel is obtained using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Results show that Ti implantation reduced the near-surface (0.1 μm) retained austenite content by about 70% or more and evidence is found for an implantation-induced strain field which extends much deeper than the Ti-implanted zone. Changes in the near-surface martensite Mössbauer resonance are attributed to Ti on substitutional sites. Neither of the intermetallic compounds Fe2Ti or FeTi, nor the amorphous Fe–Ti or Fe–Ti–C phases are unambiguously detected. However some features of the data are not explained by Ti and/or C solid solution alloy analysis and this leads to suggestions for a(approximately-less-than)10-nm-thick amorphous phase layer and surface oxides/carbides. The microstructural modifications are correlated with tribological properties measured on the same specimens. Improvements are attributed to the retained austenite reduction, residual compressive stresses in the near-surface layer, and the surface compounds.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Amorphous silicon carbon (a-SiC:H) films have been deposited by the glow discharge technique using SiH4 and CH4 gas mixtures. At high discharge powers and low deposition chamber pressures, evidence for graphitic-type bonding in C-deficient a-SiC:H is found and correlations are made between the appearance of this bonding with significant changes in the electronic and structural properties. This graphitic-type bonding can be minimized by significant H attachment to C via CHn (n=2, 3) bonding. This results in a-SiC:H films with low gap state densities and sharp Urbach tails.
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