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  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: An apparatus suitable for pressure-jump experiments with variable pressure amplitude and a fast response time to facilitate time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering at synchrotron facilities is described. The high pressure-jump apparatus is capable of performing bidirectional pressure jumps at a time resolution as high as 5 ms. The high pressure sample cell presented has flat diamond windows and is suited for pressures up to 0.7 GPa operating in the temperature range from −40 to 120 °C. The cell is designed for investigating biological and other soft condensed matter materials. Modifications on the window supports allow also simultaneous wide-angle x-ray scattering data to be taken. We have used the equipment to study the kinetics of protein folding reactions. The performance of the apparatus is demonstrated by presenting data on the pressure-induced un/refolding reaction of the water-soluble protein SNase WT. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 73 (1998), S. 2524-2526 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A thin semiconducting NiO film is exposed to NO2 at room temperature. This exposure causes a work function change at the surface of the film due to adsorption of the NO2 molecules. It is found that there is a strong dependence of the adsorptivity, i.e., the amount of work function change per unit time, on the magnitude of an electrical field that is applied perpendicular to the film surface. This induced adsorptivity change is known as the electroadsorptive effect. In order to modulate the adsorptivity significantly, the electrical field strength must exceed 104 V/cm. This requirement can be achieved by using hybrid suspended gate field effect transistors with an air gap height below 1 μm. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 110 (1999), S. 497-500 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We report on neutron diffraction measurements on the equiatomic liquid alloy Cs–Tl over a wide temperature interval, ranging from 730 to 1700 K, and at pressures up to 100 bar. In the crystalline state, this semiconducting alloy contains octahedrally coordinated polyanions Tl66−. The static structure factor S(Q) of molten Cs–Tl at T=730 K shows a prepeak at Q=0.72 Å−1, indicating intermediate-range correlations and thus the existence of large Tl clusters. With increasing temperature the prepeak shifts towards smaller Q values and its height decreases. At T≥1300 K the prepeak in S(Q) vanishes and a strong increase of small-angle scattering is observed, suggesting a loss of coherence between Tl clusters and a tendency towards microphase separation. Analysis of the pair distribution functions n(r) indicates that thallium polyanion clusters may be present in liquid Cs–Tl even up to high temperatures. Based on the experimental diffraction patterns reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations have been carried out. They show that the prepeak and the strong increase of small-angle scattering observed in the experimental total Faber–Ziman structure factors occur predominantly in the partial structure factor STlTl(Q). The RMC results support a network-like picture for the arrangement of Tl atoms. With increasing temperature the network disintegrates and the tendency of Tl atoms to form clusters becomes a more general tendency towards microphase separation. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 112 (2000), S. 7551-7556 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We report on neutron diffraction measurements on the equiatomic liquid alloys K–Sb, K–Bi, and Rb–Bi up to temperatures of T=1800 K. The prepeaks in the resulting total structure factors S(Q) are indicative of intermediate range ordering. The shift of the prepeak positions towards smaller momentum transfer Q with increasing temperature suggests increasing distances between the structural polyanionic units. From reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations the prepeak is assigned essentially to correlations between the polyvalent metal atoms (Sb or Bi), remaining even up to the highest temperatures measured. The simulations lead to models exhibiting Sb (or Bi) atoms clustered in short chains and dumbbells rather than in higher coordinated clusters or networklike structures. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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