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  • Royal Society  (24)
  • American Society of Hematology (ASH)  (6)
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Years
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: In experimental investigations on axial symmetry, over-ventilated CH 4 /air diffusion combustion in a packed bed is executed to study the height, shape and stability of the flame. The combustor is a quartz tube packed with alumina pellets in which a cylindrical fuel stream is surrounded by a coflow air nozzle. The results show that the bed length and pellet diameter have a significant influence on the flame properties. In general, the flame above the pellet surface has axial symmetry, and its shape and colour are similar to those of a conventional diffusion flame when the bed length is smaller. The colour of the flame front varies with the bed length. The changed colour indicates an increased flame front temperature and that the combustion regime above the bed surface may change from non-premixed combustion to partially premixed combustion or even premixed combustion owing to the mix and dispersion effect in the packed bed. In addition, multiple flame behaviours, such as an inclined flame front, isolated reaction zone and oscillatory motion followed by a pulsating sound with a few hertz in a packed bed, are observed experimentally. The possible reasons for these phenomena are discussed.
    Keywords: energy
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-13
    Description: The present study introduces thermogravimetry with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TG-GC-MS) at four different heating rates to investigate the activation energy and thermal degradation behaviour of walnut shell pyrolysis. The distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was applied to investigate the activation energy. According to values of the activation energy and the correlation coefficient by the DAEM, the activation energy (98.69–267.75 kJ mol –1 ) and correlation coefficient (0.914–0.999) were determined for pyrolysis of walnut shells. GC-MS was performed to investigate the pyrolysis products from walnut shells at different critical temperature points. More than 20 different substances were identified at different temperatures from GC-MS results. With the increasing pyrolysis temperature, furan, furfural, benzene and long chain alkanes were successively identified in different GC-MS experimental results.
    Keywords: energy
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-13
    Description: Targeting fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) migration and invasion-mediated bone erosion is a promising clinical strategy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Drug sensitivity testing is fundamental to this scheme. We designed a microfluidic chip-based, cell co-cultured platform to mimic RA FLS-mediated bone erosion and perform drug-sensitive assay. Human synovium SW982 cells were cultured in the central channel and migrated to flow through matrigel-coated side channels towards cell culture chamber where RANKL-stimulated osteoclastic RAW264.7 and osteogenic medium (OS)-stimulated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) were cultured in the microfluidic chip device, mimicking FLS migration and invasion-mediated bone erosion in RA. These SW982 cells showed different migration potentials to osteoclasts and BMSC. The migration of SW982 cells with high expression of cadherin-11 was more potent when SW982 cells were connected with the co-culture of RAW264.7 and BMSC. Simultaneously, in the co-cultured chamber, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity of RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells was enhanced, but alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was decreased in comparison with mono-cultured chamber. Furthermore, it was confirmed that celastrol, a positive drug for the treatment of RA, inhibited SW982 cell migration as well as TRAP activity in the cell-cultured microfluidic chips. Thus, the migration and invasion to bone-related cells was reconstituted on the microfluidic model. It may provide an effective anti-RA drug screen model for targeting FLS migration-mediated bone erosion.
    Keywords: biochemistry, health and disease and epidemiology
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-14
    Description: Mature T-cell lymphomas, including peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL), represent a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with dismal outcomes and limited treatment options. To determine the extent of involvement of the JAK/STAT pathway in this malignancy, we performed targeted capture sequencing of 188 genes in this pathway in 171 PTCL and NKTL cases. A total of 272 nonsynonymous somatic mutations in 101 genes were identified in 73% of the samples, including 258 single-nucleotide variants and 14 insertions or deletions. Recurrent mutations were most frequently located in STAT3 and TP53 (15%), followed by JAK3 and JAK1 (6%) and SOCS1 (4%). A high prevalence of STAT3 mutation (21%) was observed specifically in NKTL. Novel STAT3 mutations (p.D427H, E616G, p.E616K, and p.E696K) were shown to increase STAT3 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT3 in the absence of cytokine, in which p.E616K induced programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression by robust binding of activated STAT3 to the PD-L1 gene promoter. Consistent with these findings, PD-L1 was overexpressed in NKTL cell lines harboring hotspot STAT3 mutations, and similar findings were observed by the overexpression of p.E616K and p.E616G in the STAT3 wild-type NKTL cell line. Conversely, STAT3 silencing and inhibition decreased PD-L1 expression in STAT3 mutant NKTL cell lines. In NKTL tumors, STAT3 activation correlated significantly with PD-L1 expression. We demonstrated that STAT3 activation confers high PD-L1 expression, which may promote tumor immune evasion. The combination of PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies and STAT3 inhibitors might be a promising therapeutic approach for NKTL, and possibly PTCL.
    Keywords: Immunobiology and Immunotherapy, Lymphoid Neoplasia
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-11
    Description: Broken gangue consists of different particles, and it has more complicated seepage characteristics than intact rock sample. Using the self-designed instrument, the permeability, mass loss and pore pressure of crushed gangue during the seepage are tested. The result shows that permeability parameter k of crushed rock has a polynomial relationship with effective stress ' in inverse proportion, and permeability parameter β of crushed gangue has power exponent relationship with effective stress ' increasing in direct proportion. The particle size of 8.0–10.0 mm has a good support effect. The inner pressure of crushed rock is mostly linear distribution along the tube wall. After the seepage, mass loss of broken gangue mainly increases with large particle size out of proportion.
    Keywords: hydrology, civil engineering, engineering geology
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-07-19
    Description: Layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly is the technology used in intermolecular static electricity, hydrogen bonds, covalent bonds and other polymer interactions during film assembling. This technology has been widely studied in the drug carrier field. Given their use in drug delivery systems, the biocompatibility of these potential compounds should be addressed. In this work, the primary biocompatibility of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-(poly-L-orithine/fucoidan) [PLGA-(PLO/fucoidan)] core–shell nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated. Atomic force microscopy revealed the PLGA-(PLO/Fucoidan) 4 NPs to be spherical, with a uniform size distribution and a smooth surface, and the NPs were stable in physiological saline. The residual amount of methylene chloride was further determined by headspace gas chromatography, in which the organic solvent can be volatilized during preparation. Furthermore, cell viability, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, haemolysis and mouse systemic toxicity were all assessed to show that PLGA-(PLO/fucoidan) 4 NPs were biocompatible with cells and mice. Therefore, these NPs are expected to have potential applications in future drug delivery systems.
    Keywords: biomaterials
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-08-16
    Description: Seven new cucurbitane glucosides, hemslepensides J-P ( 1 – 7 ), and two known compounds, 16,25- O -diacetyl-cucurbitane F ( 8 ) and 25- O -acetyl-23,24-dihydrocucurbitacin F ( 9 ), were isolated from the tubers of Hemsleya pengxianensis var. jinfushanensis . The structures of 1 – 7 were elucidated using infrared absorption spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The treatment of HT29 cells, human colon cancer cells, with compounds 8 and 9 inhibited cell proliferation. Further study demonstrated that compounds 8 and 9 induced F-actin aggregation, G 2 /M phase cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis in HT29 cells. In summary, the present study enriched the chemical composition research of H. pengxianensis , and suggested that the compounds 8 / 9 treatment may be a potentially useful therapeutic option for colon cancer.
    Keywords: medicinal chemistry, plant science
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-08-16
    Description: Types of resins anchored on citric acid were synthesized and identified. The citric acid-modified resins PS-CA, PS-O-CA and PS-N-CA were synthesized by anchoring citric acid on PS-Cl, PS-OH and PS-NH 2 , respectively. The PS-CA, PS-O-CA and PS-N-CA were used to adsorb Fe 3+ , Al 3+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ and Hg 2+ . The influences of pH, adsorption time and metal ion concentration on the adsorption capacities of the resins were investigated. After optimization, PS-CA was a good adsorbent to Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ with q m values of 143.9 mg g –1 , 77.4 mg g –1 , 18.9 mg g –1 and 119.9 mg g –1 , respectively. PS-N-CA was a good adsorbent to Al 3+ and Hg 2+ with q m values of 176.6 mg g –1 and 114.9 mg g –1 , respectively. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm experiments indicated that the pseudo-first-order rate equation was more appropriate for characterizing the kinetic data and the Langmuir model was more suitable for fitting the equilibrium data. The reusability of the citric acid-modified resins was also evaluated and these resins exhibited considerable reusability.
    Keywords: chemical engineering
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: The objectives of this study were to remove heavy metals from wastewater through the biosorption method with modified biomass as an effective sorbent and to prepare metal/biomass composites with the same modified biomass as a direct template. Eggshell membrane (ESM) was selected and modified to adsorb heavy metals. Adsorption of metal ions on the modified ESM (MESM) might be attributed to electrostatic interaction, ion exchange and coordination effect with chelating ligands containing N and S on the surface of the MESM. The pH of the solution was a key factor affecting the adsorption. The Cu–Ag/MESM composites with uniform Cu–Ag NPs were prepared with MESM as matrices, and with Cu 2+ and Ag + adsorbed as metal sources. The Cu–Ag/MESM showed excellent catalytic performance in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the aqueous phase. Because of the high stability of the Cu–Ag NPs supported on the macro-dimension supporter, Cu–Ag/MESM can be easily separated after the catalytic reaction and recycled.
    Keywords: green chemistry
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-21
    Description: Notch1 signaling must elevate to high levels in order to drive the proliferation of CD4 – CD8 – double-negative (DN) thymocytes and progression to the CD4 + CD8 + double-positive (DP) stage through β-selection. During this critical phase of pre–T-cell development, which is also known as the DN-DP transition, it is unclear whether the Notch1 transcriptional complex strengthens its signal output as a discrete unit or through cofactors. We previously showed that the protein inhibitor of activated STAT–like coactivator Zmiz1 is a context-dependent cofactor of Notch1 in T-cell leukemia. We also showed that withdrawal of Zmiz1 generated an early T-lineage progenitor (ETP) defect. Here, we show that this early defect seems inconsistent with loss-of-Notch1 function. In contrast, at the later pre–T-cell stage, withdrawal of Zmiz1 impaired the DN-DP transition by inhibiting proliferation, like withdrawal of Notch. In pre–T cells, but not ETPs, Zmiz1 cooperatively regulated Notch1 target genes Hes1 , Lef1 , and Myc. Enforced expression of either activated Notch1 or Myc partially rescued the Zmiz1-deficient DN-DP defect. We identified residues in the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of Zmiz1 that bind Notch1. Mutating only a single residue impaired the Zmiz1-Notch1 interaction, Myc induction, the DN-DP transition, and leukemic proliferation. Similar effects were seen using a dominant-negative TPR protein. Our studies identify stage-specific roles of Zmiz1. Zmiz1 is a context-specific cofactor for Notch1 during Notch/Myc-dependent thymocyte proliferation, whether normal or malignant. Finally, we highlight a vulnerability in leukemic cells that originated from a developmentally important Zmiz1-Notch1 interaction that is hijacked during transformation from normal pre–T cells.
    Keywords: Immunobiology and Immunotherapy, Lymphoid Neoplasia
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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