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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 46 (2001), S. 167-182 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Mate-seeking and sperm-transfer in the ixodid hard ticks, which include important vectors of zoonotic pathogens, generally reflect their peculiarly prolonged pattern of feeding. The metastriate ticks, including Dermacentor, Amblyomma, and Rhipicephalus, invariably attain sexual maturity and mate solely on their hosts. The more primitive prostriate Ixodes ticks, however, may copulate both in the absence of hosts and while the female engorges. These expanded opportunities for insemination complicate the mating systems of the Ixodes ricinus complex of species. In these ticks, autogenous spermatogenesis must precede host contact, whereas anautogenous oogenesis requires that the females store sperm. All hard tick males undergo a courting ritual before they can deposit their spermatophores within the female's genital tract. These diverse and prolonged patterns of sexual interaction provide opportunities for interactions between populations and individuals that may be relevant to the role of ticks as vectors of zoonotic pathogens.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 6 (1961), S. 183-200 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 37 (1997), S. 239-267 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The field of neurotrophic factor pharmacology emerged during the past decade with the discovery that these proteins can counteract neuronal atrophy and death in the adult nervous system. These concepts are being tested in clinical trials. Therapeutic use of neurotrophic proteins seems practical for diseases of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), where they can be given by systemic administration. For diseases of the CNS, special administration strategies will have to be developed to deliver the neurotrophic factors into the brain. The development of small molecule mimetics represents an alternative approach that is actively pursued to provide brain-penetrant neurotrophics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 67 (2005), S. 531-555 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Notes: The countercurrent system in the medulla of the mammalian kidney provides the basis for the production of urine of widely varying osmolalities, but necessarily entails extreme conditions for medullary cells, i.e., high concentrations of solutes (mainly NaCl and urea) in antidiuresis, massive changes in extracellular solute concentrations during the transitions from antidiuresis to diuresis and vice versa, and low oxygen tension. The strategies used by medullary cells to survive in this hostile milieu include accumulation of organic osmolytes and heat shock proteins, the extensive use of the glycolysis for energy production, and a well-orchestrated network of signaling pathways coordinating medullary circulation and tubular work.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Genetics 33 (1999), S. 351-397 
    ISSN: 0066-4197
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Recent results from ancestral (minimally derived) protists testify to the tremendous diversity of the mitochondrial genome in various eukaryotic lineages, but also reinforce the view that mitochondria, descendants of an endosymbiotic alpha-Proteobacterium, arose only once in evolution. The serial endosymbiosis theory, currently the most popular hypothesis to explain the origin of mitochondria, postulates the capture of an alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont by a nucleus-containing eukaryotic host resembling extant amitochondriate protists. New sequence data have challenged this scenario, instead raising the possibility that the origin of the mitochondrion was coincident with, and contributed substantially to, the origin of the nuclear genome of the eukaryotic cell. Defining more precisely the alpha-proteobacterial ancestry of the mitochondrial genome, and the contribution of the endosymbiotic event to the nuclear genome, will be essential for a full understanding of the origin and evolution of the eukaryotic cell as a whole.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Genetics 38 (2004), S. 477-524 
    ISSN: 0066-4197
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Over the past several decades, our knowledge of the origin and evolution of mitochondria has been greatly advanced by determination of complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Among the most informative mitochondrial genomes have been those of protists (primarily unicellular eukaryotes), some of which harbor the most gene-rich and most eubacteria-like mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) known. Comparison of mtDNA sequence data has provided insights into the radically diverse trends in mitochondrial genome evolution exhibited by different phylogenetically coherent groupings of eukaryotes, and has allowed us to pinpoint specific protist relatives of the multicellular eukaryotic lineages (animals, plants, and fungi). This comparative genomics approach has also revealed unique and fascinating aspects of mitochondrial gene expression, highlighting the mitochondrion as an evolutionary playground par excellence.
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