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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Objective To assess the relationship between risk factor clusters and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in Asian and Caucasian populations and to estimate the burden of CVD attributable to each cluster. Setting Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Participants Individual participant data from 34 population-based cohorts, involving 314 024 participants without a history of CVD at baseline. Outcome measures Clusters were 11 possible combinations of four individual risk factors (current smoking, overweight, blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol). Cox regression models were used to obtain adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for CVD associated with individual risk factors and risk factor clusters. Population-attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Results During a mean follow-up of 7 years, 6203 CVD events were recorded. The ranking of HRs and PAFs was similar for Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) and Asia; clusters including BP consistently showed the highest HRs and PAFs. The BP–smoking cluster had the highest HR for people with two risk factors: 4.13 (3.56 to 4.80) for Asia and 3.07 (2.23 to 4.23) for ANZ. Corresponding PAFs were 24% and 11%, respectively. For individuals with three risk factors, the BP–smoking–cholesterol cluster had the highest HR (4.67 (3.92 to 5.57) for Asia and 3.49 (2.69 to 4.53) for ANZ). Corresponding PAFs were 13% and 10%. Conclusions Risk factor clusters act similarly on CVD risk in Asian and Caucasian populations. Clusters including elevated BP were associated with the highest excess risk of CVD.
    Keywords: Open access, Epidemiology, Epidemiology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Objectives To validate the performances of two prediction models (Brock and Lee models) for the differentiation of minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) and invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma (IPA) from preinvasive lesions among subsolid nodules (SSNs). Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting A tertiary university hospital in South Korea. Participants 410 patients with 410 incidentally detected SSNs who underwent surgical resection for the pulmonary adenocarcinoma spectrum between 2011 and 2015. Primary and secondary outcome measures Using clinical and radiological variables, the predicted probability of MIA/IPA was calculated from pre-existing logistic models (Brock and Lee models). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) were calculated and compared between models. Performance metrics including sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were also obtained. Results For pure ground-glass nodules (n=101), the AUC of the Brock model in differentiating MIA/IPA (59/101) from preinvasive lesions (42/101) was 0.671. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV based on the optimal cut-off value were 64.4%, 64.3%, 64.4%, 71.7% and 56.3%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV according to the Lee criteria were 76.3%, 42.9%, 62.4%, 65.2% and 56.3%, respectively. AUC was not obtained for the Lee model as a single cut-off of nodule size (≥10 mm) was suggested by this model for the assessment of pure ground-glass nodules. For part-solid nodules (n=309; 26 preinvasive lesions and 283 MIA/IPAs), the AUC was 0.746 for the Brock model and 0.771 for the Lee model (p=0.574). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV were 82.3%, 53.8%, 79.9%, 95.1% and 21.9%, respectively, for the Brock model and 77.0%, 69.2%, 76.4%, 96.5% and 21.7%, respectively, for the Lee model. Conclusions The performance of prediction models for the incidentally detected SSNs in differentiating MIA/IPA from preinvasive lesions might be suboptimal. Thus, an alternative risk calculation model is required for the incidentally detected SSNs.
    Keywords: Open access, Oncology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Objectives Asthma exacerbation, associated with many risks factors, can reflect management failure. However, little is known about how risk factors are associated with exacerbation, according to asthma severity. We aimed to investigate differences in risk factors in patients with different asthma severity and evaluate whether risk factors differed between frequent exacerbators and patients with single exacerbation. Design Nationwide population-based observational study. Setting Korean National Sample Cohort database. Participants We included 22 130 adults with asthma diagnoses more than twice (ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth revision) codes J45 and J46) and one prescription for asthma medication from 2010 to 2011. Outcome measures Asthma exacerbation was defined as having a corticosteroid (CS) burst characterised by a prescription of high-dose oral CS for ≥3 days or one systemic CS injection, hospitalisation or emergency department visit. Results Among severities, history of CS bursts was significantly associated with exacerbation. In mild and moderate asthma, exacerbation was significantly associated with age ≥45 years, being female, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and chronic rhinitis. High medication possession ratio (MPR≥50%), compared with low MPR (〈20%) showed adjusted ORs of 0.828 (95% CI 0.707 to 0.971) and 0.362 (0.185 to 0.708) in moderate and severe asthma, respectively. In severe asthma, compared with mild asthma, only allergic rhinitis and history of hospitalisation were strongly associated with exacerbation. When comparing frequent exacerbators to patients with single exacerbation, age ≥45 years, atopic dermatitis, anxiety and history of CS burst were significant risk factors in mild and moderate asthma, whereas no risk factors were significant in severe asthma. Conclusions Different associations between risk factors and asthma exacerbations based on asthma severity suggest that patients with mild asthma require greater attention to their age and comorbidities, whereas those with severe asthma require greater attention to hospitalisation history and drug adherence.
    Keywords: Open access, Respiratory medicine
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: Objectives Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease. This study aims to determine the association between SHS exposure estimated by questionnaire and hypertension in Korean never smokers. Setting Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V was conducted from 2010 to 2012. Participants We selected the never smokers aged over 20 years who answered the question about the SHS exposure. Primary and secondary measures SHS exposure in both the home and work place was estimated using a self-reporting questionnaire. We investigated the association between SHS exposure and hypertension by using multivariate analysis. And we evaluated the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure values according to SHS exposure after adjusting for possible confounding factors. All analyses were stratified by women and men. Results There were 10 532 (women 8987 and men 1545) never smokers. We divided the subjects into three groups according to the amount of SHS exposure: none—group I, 〈2 hour/day—group II and ≥2 hour/day—group III. Using multivariate analysis, hypertension was more commonly associated with group III than group I in women (adjusted OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.04, p=0.011). Adjusted mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in women who were not taking antihypertensive medication were significantly elevated in group III by 2.3 and 1.7 mm Hg, respectively. Conclusion SHS exposure is significantly associated with hypertension in women never smokers.
    Keywords: Open access, Smoking and tobacco
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-05-18
    Description: Objectives The aim of this pilot study was to estimate the sample size for a large pragmatic study of the comparative effectiveness of electroacupuncture (EA) for low back pain (LBP) after back surgery. Design A randomised, active-controlled, assessor-blinded trial. Participants Patients with recurrent or persistent LBP, defined as a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score of ≥50 mm, with or without leg pain after back surgery. Interventions Patients were randomised to an EA plus usual care (UC) group or to a UC alone group at a 1:1 ratio. Patients assigned to each group received UC, including drug therapy, physical therapy and back pain education, twice a week for 4 weeks; those assigned to the EA plus UC group additionally received EA. Outcome measures The primary outcome was severity of LBP as measured by VAS. Secondary outcomes included back pain-related disability, assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and quality of life, assessed using the EuroQol Five Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using paired and independent t-tests. A p value of 〈0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Thirty-nine patients were allocated to receive EA plus UC (n=18) or UC alone (n=21). There was no statistically significant difference in VAS or EQ-5D scores between the two groups, but there was a significant decrease in ODI scores (p=0.0081). Using G*Power, it was calculated that 40 participants per group would be needed for a future trial according to VAS scores. Considering for a 25% dropout rate, 108 participants (54 per group) would be needed. Conclusions A future trial addressing the risk of bias and including the estimated sample size would allow for better clinical assessment of the benefits of EA plus UC in treatment of patients with non-acute pain after back surgery. Trial registration number NCT01966250; Results .
    Keywords: Open access, Complementary medicine
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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