Objectives To validate the performances of two prediction models (Brock and Lee models) for the differentiation of minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) and invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma (IPA) from preinvasive lesions among subsolid nodules (SSNs). Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting A tertiary university hospital in South Korea. Participants 410 patients with 410 incidentally detected SSNs who underwent surgical resection for the pulmonary adenocarcinoma spectrum between 2011 and 2015. Primary and secondary outcome measures Using clinical and radiological variables, the predicted probability of MIA/IPA was calculated from pre-existing logistic models (Brock and Lee models). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) were calculated and compared between models. Performance metrics including sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were also obtained. Results For pure ground-glass nodules (n=101), the AUC of the Brock model in differentiating MIA/IPA (59/101) from preinvasive lesions (42/101) was 0.671. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV based on the optimal cut-off value were 64.4%, 64.3%, 64.4%, 71.7% and 56.3%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV according to the Lee criteria were 76.3%, 42.9%, 62.4%, 65.2% and 56.3%, respectively. AUC was not obtained for the Lee model as a single cut-off of nodule size (≥10 mm) was suggested by this model for the assessment of pure ground-glass nodules. For part-solid nodules (n=309; 26 preinvasive lesions and 283 MIA/IPAs), the AUC was 0.746 for the Brock model and 0.771 for the Lee model (p=0.574). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV were 82.3%, 53.8%, 79.9%, 95.1% and 21.9%, respectively, for the Brock model and 77.0%, 69.2%, 76.4%, 96.5% and 21.7%, respectively, for the Lee model. Conclusions The performance of prediction models for the incidentally detected SSNs in differentiating MIA/IPA from preinvasive lesions might be suboptimal. Thus, an alternative risk calculation model is required for the incidentally detected SSNs.
Open access, Oncology