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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-12
    Description: Objectives Ischaemic heart diseases (IHDs) are a leading cause of death worldwide. Although prescribing according to guidelines improves health outcomes, it remains suboptimal. We determined whether interventions targeted at healthcare professionals are effective to enhance prescribing and health outcomes in patients with IHDs. Methods We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 31 August 2017. We included original studies of interventions targeted at healthcare professionals to enhance prescribing guideline-recommended medications for IHDs. We only included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Main outcomes were the proportion of eligible patients receiving guideline-recommended medications, the proportion of patients achieving target blood pressure and target low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)/cholesterol level and mortality rate. Meta-analyses were performed using the inverse-variance method and the random effects model. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results We included 13 studies, 4 RCTs (1869 patients) and 9 cluster RCTs (15 224 patients). 11 out of 13 studies were performed in North America and Europe. Interventions were of organisational or professional nature. The interventions significantly enhanced prescribing of statins/lipid-lowering agents (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.42, P=0.004), but not other medications (aspirin/antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers and the composite of medications). There was no significant association between the interventions and improved health outcomes (target LDL-C and mortality) except for target blood pressure (OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.93; P=0.008). The evidence was of moderate or high quality for all outcomes. Conclusions Organisational and professional interventions improved prescribing of statins/lipid-lowering agents and target blood pressure in patients with IHDs but there was little evidence of change in other outcomes. PROSPERO registration number CRD42016039188 .
    Keywords: Open access
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-27
    Description: Objectives To investigate recipient characteristics and rates of index angiography among First Nations (FN) and non-FN populations in Manitoba, Canada. Setting Population-based, secondary analysis of provincial administrative health data. Participants All adults 18 years or older who received an index angiogram between 2000/2001 and 2008/2009. Primary and secondary outcome measures (1) Descriptive statistics for age, sex, income quintile by rural and urban residency and Charlson Comorbidity Index for FN and non-FN recipients. (2) Annual index angiogram rates for FN and non-FN populations and among those rates of ‘urgent’ angiograms based on acute myocardial infarction (AMI)-related hospitalisations during the previous 7 days. (3) Proportions of people who did not receive an angiogram in the 20 years preceding an ischaemic heart disease (IHD) diagnosis or a cardiovascular death; stratified by age (〈65 or ≥65 years old). Results FN recipients were younger (56.3vs63.8 years; p〈0.0001) and had higher Charlson Comorbidity scores (1.32vs0.78; p〈0.001). During all years examined, index angiography rates were lower among FN people (2.67vs3.33 per 1000 population per year; p〈0.001) with no notable temporal trends. Among the index angiogram recipients, a higher proportion was associated with an AMI-related hospitalisation in the FN group (28.8%vs25.0%; p〈0.01) and in both groups rates significantly increased over time. FN people who died from cardiovascular disease or were older (65+years old) diagnosed with IHD were more likely to have received an angiogram in the preceding 20–30 years (17.8%vs12.5%; p〈0.01 and 50.9%vs49.5%; p〈0.03, respectively). FN people diagnosed with IHD who were under the age of 65 were less likely to have received an angiogram (47.8%vs53.1%; p〈0.01) Conclusions Index angiogram use differences are suggested between FN and non-FN populations, which may contribute to reported IHD disparities. Investigating factors driving these rates will determine any association between ethnicity and angiography services.
    Keywords: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine, Epidemiology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-29
    Description: Objectives To explore the perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences related to Vietnamese medical students’ binge drinking. Design A qualitative study comprising semi-structured focus groups/interviews with medical students and semi-structured interviews with key informants. Thematic analysis of data. Setting Participants were a convenience sample of usual volunteers from a medical university in Viet Nam. Participants 19 medical students from year 1 to 6 and 4 key informants agreed to participate in the study. Results The study found participants believe medical students drink less than other students and are not binge drinkers yet they experience and/or witness many binge drinking occasions among medical students. Participants consider alcohol use as culturally acceptable in Vietnamese society and a way for medical students to create and improve relationships with their friends, teachers, or work colleagues. Group affiliation and peer pressure to drink excessive alcohol are identified among medical students, especially male students. Conclusion The culture of drinking behaviour was explored among medical students in Viet Nam. This study reveals a dichotomy between the belief of not being binge drinkers and the experience of many binge drinking occasions among medical students. This tension suggests future research about binge drinking behaviour of Vietnamese medical students is required.
    Keywords: Open access, Qualitative research
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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