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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing
    Psychophysiology 38 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: The present study examined event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by a visual discrimination task in a community sample of adult males with a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Study participants were subtyped by the presence of additional comorbid disorders (antisocial personality, depression, and drug abuse or dependence). In all groups of alcohol-dependent subjects, even those without any additional comorbid disorders, P3 amplitude differed from that of a comparison group. Alcohol-dependent subjects with a diagnosis of illicit drug abuse or dependence, especially if they had antisocial personality as well, had the smallest amplitude responses. The amplitude profile of the P3 across the parietal electrodes used as active sites was flattened among alcoholic subjects, with P3 amplitude disproportionately reduced at the midline. Among alcoholic subjects with a lifetime diagnosis of depression, the flattened amplitude profile was due to elevated mean amplitude of the P3 at lateral leads, especially P4, relative to the comparison group. Alterations in ERP responses appear to be a general characteristic of alcoholism in men, although the presence of other comorbid disorders, particularly drug abuse or dependence together with antisocial personality, results in the greatest reductions in P3 amplitude.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Twelve right-handed men participated in two mental rotation tasks as their regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was monitored using positron emission tomography. In one task, participants mentally rotated and compared figures composed of angular branching forms; in the other task, participants mentally rotated and compared drawings of human hands. In both cases, rCBF was compared with a baseline condition that used identical stimuli and required the same comparison, but in which rotation was not required. Mental rotation of branching objects engendered activation in the parietal lobe and Area 19. In contrast, mental rotation of hands engendered activation in the precentral gyrus (M1), superior and inferior parietal lobes, primary visual cortex, insula, and frontal Areas 6 and 9. The results suggest that at least two different mechanisms can be used in mental rotation, one mechanism that recruits processes that prepare motor movements and another mechanism that does not.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1469-8986
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: We examined heritability of error rate on the antisaccade task among female twin youths. This task appears to be sensitive to prefrontal functioning, providing a measure of individual differences in inhibitory control associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia. The sample consisted of 674 11-year-olds and 616 17-year-olds, comprising the two cohorts of female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, a population-based investigation of substance abuse and related psychopathology. We used biometric model-fitting methods to determine the relative magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on performance. In both age cohorts, the best fitting model contained additive genes and nonshared environment. Despite substantial age-related differences in mean performance levels (effect size = .81), additive genes accounted for greater than half the variance in performance in both age cohorts. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that antisaccade error rate might serve as an endophenotype for behavior disorders reflecting frontal lobe dysfunction or problems with inhibitory control.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: No-tillage (NT) management has been promoted as a practice capable of offsetting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because of its ability to sequester carbon in soils. However, true mitigation is only possible if the overall impact of NT adoption reduces the net global warming potential (GWP) determined by fluxes of the three major biogenic GHGs (i.e. CO2, N2O, and CH4). We compiled all available data of soil-derived GHG emission comparisons between conventional tilled (CT) and NT systems for humid and dry temperate climates. Newly converted NT systems increase GWP relative to CT practices, in both humid and dry climate regimes, and longer-term adoption (〉10 years) only significantly reduces GWP in humid climates. Mean cumulative GWP over a 20-year period is also reduced under continuous NT in dry areas, but with a high degree of uncertainty. Emissions of N2O drive much of the trend in net GWP, suggesting improved nitrogen management is essential to realize the full benefit from carbon storage in the soil for purposes of global warming mitigation. Our results indicate a strong time dependency in the GHG mitigation potential of NT agriculture, demonstrating that GHG mitigation by adoption of NT is much more variable and complex than previously considered, and policy plans to reduce global warming through this land management practice need further scrutiny to ensure success.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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