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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (14)
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Inc.  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The otolith microstructures of the leptocephali of Saurenchelys stylura and Dysomma sp., collected in November and December 2000 in the East China Sea, were examined to determine their larval ages and growth rates, and the spawning times of these two species of outer shelf and slope marine eels. Leptocephali ranging in size from 8 to 48 mm total length were examined, and the nettastomatid, S. stylura, and the synaphobranchid, Dysomma sp., had estimated ages that ranged from 16 to 75 days and 17 to 66 days, respectively. The overall growth rate of S. stylura was 0·68 mm day−1(n = 21), and of Dysomma sp. was 0·44 mm day−1(n = 22). These growth rates were similar or slightly faster than those observed for anguillid leptocephali in offshore areas of the western Pacific. The backcalculated hatching dates for these two species were from September to November. The otolith increment widths of S. stylura showed an increase before 20 to 30 days that were similar to those in anguillid species, but in Dysomma sp. there were no remarkable increases.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Inc.
    Journal of fish biology 67 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The burrow morphology of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica was studied using in situ resin-casting in a mud bottomed tidal drainage channel adjacent to the Fukui River in Tokushima, Japan. Two eels (62·5 and 56·3 cm total length) were initially fished from the burrows to verify that they were being used by A. japonica. Casts were made of 10 burrows that were found to have from one to three openings and main tunnels that were parallel to the axis of water flow in the channel. The maximum depths of the tunnels in the mud were 17·8–30·0 cm. The diameters of main tunnels ranged from 1·2 to 7·9 cm, were almost always wider than the bodies of the Japanese eels examined, and were more variable in the horizontal axis than in the vertical axis. There were no other animals capable of constructing a long and thin burrow in this channel, so these observations indicate that anguillids are able to construct their own burrows in soft mud sediments that may be used for extended periods of time.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1524-475X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  The human forearm biopsy model is employed by the Wound Healing Cooperative Group to evaluate the effect of novel agents on acute wounds. Bismuth Subgallate/Borneal (Suile) is a new product with FDA permission for the treatment of partial thickness wounds. However, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that Suile may be effective in the treatment of full thickness wounds because of its antimicrobial, hemostatic and antiinflammatory properties.Methods:  In our randomized, investigator-blinded study, 20 normal healthy volunteers underwent two 6 mm full-thickness skin biopsies on the flexor surface of each forearm (two wounds per subject). Biopsy sites were randomly assigned to control (daily bacitracin) or to the treatment arm (daily Suile). The wounds were examined, measured by digital planimetry, and photographed daily until complete healing was achieved. Adverse events and pain levels were monitored. Healing velocity and time-to-complete closure were determined.Results:  The forearm biopsy model allowed direct quantitative and qualitative comparisons of wound healing outcomes achieved by the Suile regimen versus bacitracin alone. Subject compliance was excellent. The conduct of the study was further facilitated by the use of handheld electronic documentation.Conclusion:  The forearm biopsy model has several advantages: It allows for a direct comparison of topical agents in a controlled fashion, studies can be conducted rapidly with good patient compliance and it allows investigators to gain firsthand experience with products prior to embarking on large clinical trials in chronic wounds.Acknowledgments:  Grant from Hedonist Biochemical Technologies Co.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-29
    Description: The Earth-Moon system likely formed as a result of a collision between two large planetary objects. Debate about their relative masses, the impact energy involved, and the extent of isotopic homogenization continues. We present the results of a high-precision oxygen isotope study of an extensive suite of lunar and terrestrial samples. We demonstrate that lunar rocks and terrestrial basalts show a 3 to 4 ppm (parts per million), statistically resolvable, difference in 17 O. Taking aubrite meteorites as a candidate impactor material, we show that the giant impact scenario involved nearly complete mixing between the target and impactor. Alternatively, the degree of similarity between the 17 O values of the impactor and the proto-Earth must have been significantly closer than that between Earth and aubrites. If the Earth-Moon system evolved from an initially highly vaporized and isotopically homogenized state, as indicated by recent dynamical models, then the terrestrial basalt-lunar oxygen isotope difference detected by our study may be a reflection of post–giant impact additions to Earth. On the basis of this assumption, our data indicate that post–giant impact additions to Earth could have contributed between 5 and 30% of Earth’s water, depending on global water estimates. Consequently, our data indicate that the bulk of Earth’s water was accreted before the giant impact and not later, as often proposed.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-08-17
    Description: We document rapid and abrupt clearings of large portions of the subtropical marine low cloud deck that have implications for the global radiation balance and climate sensitivity. Over the southeast Atlantic, large areas of stratocumulus are quickly eroded, yielding partial or complete clearing along sharp transitions hundreds to thousands of kilometers in length that move westward at 8 to 12 meters per second and travel as far as 1000+ kilometers from the African coast. The westward-moving cloudiness reductions have an annual peak in occurrence in the period from April through June. The cloud erosion boundaries reduce cloud at 10-kilometer scale in less than 15 minutes, move approximately perpendicular to the mean flow, and are often accompanied by small-scale wave features. Observations suggest that the cloud erosion is caused by atmospheric gravity waves.
    Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-02-24
    Description: The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different epochs, we detected the signatures of a nearly spherical stream of highly ionized gas in the broadband x-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456. This persistent wind is expelled at relativistic speeds from the inner accretion disk, and its wide aperture suggests an effective coupling with the ambient gas. The outflow's kinetic power larger than 10(46) ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nardini, E -- Reeves, J N -- Gofford, J -- Harrison, F A -- Risaliti, G -- Braito, V -- Costa, M T -- Matzeu, G A -- Walton, D J -- Behar, E -- Boggs, S E -- Christensen, F E -- Craig, W W -- Hailey, C J -- Matt, G -- Miller, J M -- O'Brien, P T -- Stern, D -- Turner, T J -- Ward, M J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Feb 20;347(6224):860-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1259202.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK. e.nardini@keele.ac.uk. ; Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK. Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA. ; Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze, Italy. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (LC), Italy. ; Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK. ; Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. ; Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel. ; Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Danmarks Tekniske Universitet Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark. ; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. ; Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA. ; Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma, Italy. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. ; Physics Department, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA. Eureka Scientific Inc., 2452 Delmer Street Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602, USA. ; Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25700515" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-11-28
    Description: Solar photoconversion in semiconductors is driven by charge separation at the interface of the semiconductor and contacting layers. Here we demonstrate that time-resolved photoinduced reflectance from a semiconductor captures interfacial carrier dynamics. We applied this transient photoreflectance method to study charge transfer at p-type gallium-indium phosphide (p-GaInP2) interfaces critically important to solar-driven water splitting. We monitored the formation and decay of transient electric fields that form upon photoexcitation within bare p-GaInP2, p-GaInP2/platinum (Pt), and p-GaInP2/amorphous titania (TiO2) interfaces. The data show that a field at both the p-GaInP2/Pt and p-GaInP2/TiO2 interfaces drives charge separation. Additionally, the charge recombination rate at the p-GaInP2/TiO2 interface is greatly reduced owing to its p-n nature, compared with the Schottky nature of the p-GaInP2/Pt interface.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yang, Ye -- Gu, Jing -- Young, James L -- Miller, Elisa M -- Turner, John A -- Neale, Nathan R -- Beard, Matthew C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 27;350(6264):1061-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3459.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, Golden, CO, 80401, USA. ye.yang@nrel.gov matt.beard@nrel.gov. ; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, Golden, CO, 80401, USA. ; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, Golden, CO, 80401, USA. Material Science and Engineering Program, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26612947" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-07-12
    Description: The contemporary Arctic carbon balance is uncertain, and the potential for a permafrost carbon feedback of anywhere from 50 to 200 petagrams of carbon (Schuur et al ., 2015) compromises accurate 21st-century global climate system projections. The 42-year record of atmospheric CO 2 measurements at Barrow, Alaska (71.29 N, 156.79 W), reveals significant trends in regional land-surface CO 2 anomalies (CO 2 ), indicating long-term changes in seasonal carbon uptake and respiration. Using a carbon balance model constrained by CO 2 , we find a 13.4% decrease in mean carbon residence time (50% confidence range = 9.2 to 17.6%) in North Slope tundra ecosystems during the past four decades, suggesting a transition toward a boreal carbon cycling regime. Temperature dependencies of respiration and carbon uptake suggest that increases in cold season Arctic labile carbon release will likely continue to exceed increases in net growing season carbon uptake under continued warming trends.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-07-28
    Description: The observation and control of interweaving spin, charge, orbital, and structural degrees of freedom in materials on ultrafast time scales reveal exotic quantum phenomena and enable new active forms of nanotechnology. Bonding is the prime example of the relation between electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. We report direct evidence illustrating that photoexcitation can be used for ultrafast control of the breaking and recovery of bonds in solids on unprecedented time scales, near the limit for nuclear motions. We describe experimental and theoretical studies of IrTe 2 using femtosecond electron diffraction and density functional theory to investigate bonding instability. Ir-Ir dimerization shows an unexpected fast dissociation and recovery due to the filling of the antibonding d xy orbital. Bond length changes of 20% in IrTe 2 are achieved by effectively addressing the bonds directly through this relaxation process. These results could pave the way to ultrafast switching between metastable structures by photoinduced manipulation of the relative degree of bonding in this manner.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: Expansions of a hexanucleotide repeat (GGGGCC) in the noncoding region of the C9orf72 gene are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. Decreased expression of C9orf72 is seen in expansion carriers, suggesting that loss of function may play a role in disease. We found that two independent mouse lines lacking the C9orf72 ortholog (3110043O21Rik) in all tissues developed normally and aged without motor neuron disease. Instead, C9orf72 null mice developed progressive splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy with accumulation of engorged macrophage-like cells. C9orf72 expression was highest in myeloid cells, and the loss of C9orf72 led to lysosomal accumulation and altered immune responses in macrophages and microglia, with age-related neuroinflammation similar to C9orf72 ALS but not sporadic ALS human patient tissue. Thus, C9orf72 is required for the normal function of myeloid cells, and altered microglial function may contribute to neurodegeneration in C9orf72 expansion carriers.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉O'Rourke, J G -- Bogdanik, L -- Yanez, A -- Lall, D -- Wolf, A J -- Muhammad, A K M G -- Ho, R -- Carmona, S -- Vit, J P -- Zarrow, J -- Kim, K J -- Bell, S -- Harms, M B -- Miller, T M -- Dangler, C A -- Underhill, D M -- Goodridge, H S -- Lutz, C M -- Baloh, R H -- GM085796/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- NS069669/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS078398/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS087351/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- UL1TR000124/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1324-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1064.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. ; The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME, USA. ; Division of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. Department of Neurology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989253" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/immunology ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics/*immunology ; Animals ; Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics/*immunology ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/genetics/*physiology ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; Lymphatic Diseases/genetics/immunology ; Macrophages/*immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Microglia/*immunology ; Myeloid Cells/*immunology ; Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Rats ; Splenomegaly/genetics/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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