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  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (11)
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (4)
  • 1990-1994  (15)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The synthesis of the small, cytoplasmic protein UspA universal stress protein A) of Escherichia coli is induced as soon as the cell growth rate falls below the maximal growth rate supported by the medium, regardless of the condition inhibiting growth. The increase in UspA synthesis appears to be the result of Induction of the monocistronic uspA gene. Induction of this gene during a heat-shock treatment is demonstrated to be the result of transcriptional activation of σ70-dependent promoter which has previously been shown to be activated also during carbon starvation-induced growth arrest. Mutant cells lacking UspA grow at rates indistinguisible from the isogenic parent at different temperatures and in the presence of different growth inhibitors but are impaired in their ability to survive prolonged periods of complete growth inhibition caused by a variety of diverse stresses, including CdCl2, H2O2, DNP, CCCP exposure, and osmotic shock. Moreover, the uspA mutation results in an increased sensitivity of cells to carbon-source starvation (i.e. glucose, glycerol or succinate depletion). Also, the mutation causes a marked alteration in the timing of starvation protein expression but protein expression during steady-state growth appears to be normal. The results presented have prompted us to postulate that UspA may have a general protective function related to the growth arrest state.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In 1971–72, a total of 375 adult subjects were recruited for a clinical trial aimed at assessing the effect of a preventive program, based on plaque control and topical application of fluoride, on the incidence of caries and periodontal disease. After a baseline examination, the volunteers were subjected to scaling, root planing and conventional caries therapy. During the course of the subsequent 6 years, they were recalled for preventive measures once every 2–3 months. After the 6–year follow-up examination, however, it was decided to extend the interval between the preventive sessions. Thus, during the next 9–year period, about 95% of the participants returned for preventive measures only 1 to 2 times per year. A small subgroup of about 15 subjects, who, during the initial 6 years had developed new caries lesions or had exhibited additional periodontal attachment loss, however, were also during the following 9 years recalled 3–6 times per year for oral hygiene control and preventive therapy. The re-examination performed in 1987 disclosed that the 317 subjects, who participated during the entire 15-year period, had a low incidence of caries and almost no further loss of periodontal tissue support. It was suggested that improved self performed oral hygiene, daily use of fluoridated dentifrice and regularly repeated professional tooth cleaning effectively prevented recurrence of dental disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The prevalence of positive skin prick tests (SPT) for common allergens and symptoms of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma was investigated in Umeå in northern Sweden in 1987. Skin prick tests with 10 allergens common in Sweden and a questionnaire were used to examine 1112 teenagers. All subjects with a positive skin prick test or symptoms were interviewed, and they were further investigated by a serum specific IgE test, a ventilatory lung function test, and a physical examination. At least one skin prick test was positive in 43% of the subjects. Ninety-three percent had at least one positive skin prick test to one of the three most common allergens: cat, timothy grass, and birch. The prevalence of current allergic rhinoconjunctivitis was 17%, current allergic asthma 2.8%, and current asthma (both allergic and nonallergic) 6.8%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the most important risk factors for current asthma were sex (being a girl) and atopy. Heredity of asthma or rhinoconjunctivitis and being born in the winter (October-March) also increased the risk. In atopic subjects, having a mother who smoked and heredity of asthma increased the risk. For allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, heredity increased the risk of getting rhinoconjunctivitis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1574-6941
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The uptake kinetics of d-glucose were examined in the marine Vibrio sp. S14 during a period of 168 h of complete energy and nutrient starvation. Two glucose transport systems were distinguished in Vibrio sp. S14: a low affinity system (Km= 4.6 ± 0.9 M) at the onset of starvation, and a high affinity system (Km= 0.55 ± 0.15 M) after 168 h of starvation. Both systems had a narrow substrate specificity, and both were osmotic shock-sensitive.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Proteins of the glucose-starvation stimulon were identified by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the gene–protein database of Escherichia coli. Members of this stimulon Included enzymes of the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas (EMP) pathway, phosphotransacetylase (Pta) and acetate kinase (AckA) of the acetyl phosphate/acetate production pathway, and formate transacetytase. The synthesis of these enzymes was found to be Induced concomitantly with the decreased synthesis of enzymes of the Krebs cycle. Thus, the modulation in the synthesis of specific proteins during aerobic glucose starvation is, In part, similar to the response of cells shifted to anaerobiosis. These modulations suggest that the glucose-starved cell increases the relative flow of carbon through the Pta–AckA pathway. Indeed, the ability to synthesize acetyl phosphate, an intermediate of the pathway, appears to be indispensable for glucose-starved cells as pta and pta–ackA double mutants were found to be impaired in their ability to survive glucose starvation. The survival characteristics of ackA mutants and the wild-type parent were indistinguishable. Moreover, the pta mutant failed to induce several proteins of the glucose-starvation stimulon.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The decay rate of the potential to synthesize proteins after complete inhibition of transcription by rifampicin was analyzed to determine the functional mRNA stability of exponentially growing and glucose-starved Escherichia coli B and K12 cells. We found the following: (i) The half-life of the mRNA pool increased 2.2-fold during a period of 2 h of starvation (from 1.8 min in exponentially growing cells to 4.0 min for starved for 2 h); (ii) the effect on transcript stability appeared to be global since transcripts of genes that were induced, repressed or unaltered in their expression during starvation exhibited more or less the same increased stability; (iii) the rate of peptide chain elongation, as measured by the synthesis time for β-galactosidase, decreased 1.9-fold during the starvation period studied and may, at least in part, account for the global stabilization of transcripts in starved cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The response of non-differentiating bacteria to nutrient starvation is complex and includes the sequential synthesis of starvation-inducible proteins. Although starvation for different individual nutrients generally provokes unique and individual patterns of protein expression, some starvation stimulons share member proteins. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the synthesis of a small (13.5 kDa) cytoplasmic protein in Escherichia coli was greatly increased during growth inhibition caused by the exhaustion of any of a variety of nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, sulphate, required amino acid) or by the presence of a variety of toxic agents including heavy metals, oxidants, acids and antibiotics. To determine further the mode of regulation of the protein designated UspA (üniversal stress pUrotein A) we cloned the gene encoding the protein by the technique of reverse genetics. We isolated the protein from a preparative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel, determined its N-terminal amino acid sequence, and used this sequence to construct a degenerate oligonucleotide probe. Two phages of the Kohara library were found to contain the gene which then was subcloned from the DNA in the overlapping region of these two clones. The amino acid sequence, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the uspA gene, shows no significant homology with any other known protein. The uspA gene maps at 77 min on the E. coli W3110 chromosome, and is transcribed in a clockwise direction. The increase in the level of UspA during growth arrest was found to be primarily a result of transcriptional activation of the corresponding gene. The induction was independent of the RelA/SpoT, RpoH, KatF, OmpR, AppY, Lrp, PhoB and H-NS proteins during stress conditions that are known to induce or activate these global regulators. The -10 and -35 regions upstream of the transcriptional start site of the uspA gene are characteristic of a σ70-dependent promoter.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Free-living N2-fixing Frankia strains isolated from Casuarina sp. were investigated for genomic polymorphism. We used six 10-mer oligonucleotides as single arbitrary primers (AP) for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in order to amplify random DNA fragments in the genome of free-living Frankia strains. Agarose-gels of the amplified genomic DNA revealed that two of the six arbitrary primers showed polymorphism in the eight different Frankia genomes. Analysis of the AP-PCR products showed 9 polymorphic bands ranging from 4.1–0.60 kb. We conclude that single arbitrary primers can be used to amplify genomic DNA, and that polymorphism can be detected between the amplification products of the different Frankia genomes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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