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  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (25)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (14)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)  (8)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We have examined the nocturnal increase in pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) activity in the rat and the decrease in activity of this enzyme as a result of exposure of the rats to light during the nocturnal period. In females with normal ovulatory cycles and ovariectomized females, levels of the enzyme were similar during the dark (695 ± 70 pmol/min/gland vs. 590 ± 68) or after 20 min of lights on at night (107 ± 5 vs. 105 ± 8). Carbachol, a cholinergic agonist, was injected at 2400 hr (EST) into the lateral ventricle of orbitally enucleated rats. The agonist simulated the lights on effect in both intact and ovariectomized rats. Highly purified fractions of α-bungarotoxin, a nicotinic cholinergic antagonist were injected into either the third ventricle or bilaterally adjacent to the SCN in intact females, intact males, or ovariectomized rats. These injections had no effect on either the nighttime increase or the lights on inhibition of SNAT. This study makes the following observations: 1) As was previously demonstrated [Illnerova, H. Endocrinol. Exp. 9:141–148, 1975], ovariectomy affects neither the daytime (light period) nor nighttime (dark period) activity of pineal SNAT. This study extends previous work by demonstrating that ovariectomy also has no effect on the lights on at night decrease of SNAT activity. 2) This study confirms that intraventricular infusion of carbachol decreases the nocturnal pineal SNAT activity [Zatz, M., and Brownstein, M. J. Brain Res. 213: 438–442, 1981]. 3) This study does not confirm the report that the nicotinic cholinergic antagonist α-bungarotoxin prevents the loss of nocturnal SNAT activity induced by turning lights on at night [Zatz, M., and Brownstein, M. J. Brain Res. 213: 438–442, 1981].
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: To test their binding characteristics, 11 texture modifying agents/binders were added to cure formulations under industry conditions. Ham muscles were excised, butterflied, denuded of fat, tenderized, cured at 158% of raw weight, massaged, stuffed, and cooked/smoked overnight. The yield of cooked and smoked ham, shrinkage during chilling after cooking, and yield of ready-to-ship ham were not affected (P 〉 0.05) by binder. Integrated Ingredients Zyest 90 whey and yeast produced lower L * values than Protein Technology HVF 51. A. E. Staley Consista Starch and Integrated Ingredients Zyest 90 whey and yeast produced higher a* values than Hercules M8 78F and Protein Technology HVF 51. Protein Technology HVF 51 produced higher b* values than Hercules M8 78 F, DMV EM 25, and National Firmtex. AMP 80 produced a lower shear force value than DMV EM 25. The control and Hercules M8 78F produced higher moisture percentages than A. E. Staley Low Temp 452 and DMV EM 25. Protein Technology Supro 595 produced superior overall and cooked/smoked yields while A. E. Staley Consista Starch produced inferior overall and cooked/smoked yields.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Commercial beef chuck tenders were processed into recombined roasts utilizing salt or Morton's® Lite Salt (43% NaCl, 57% KCl) according to treatment (100% salt, 70% salt—30% lite salt, 30% salt—70% lite salt or 100% lite salt). Roasts were cooked to an internal temperature of 68°C. Percentages of water and protein were relatively constant across treatments and as fat percentages increased (P 〈 0.05) so did caloric content. As the level of lite salt increased, the percentage extractable potassium also increased. Cooking loss was not affected by treatment. Treatment 1 (100% salt) was harder and less tender (P 〈 0.05) than the other treatments; while juiciness, flavor and overall palatability were not affected by treatment. Results of this study suggest the feasibility of substituting lite salt for salt in these types of value added, precooked products.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This study evaluated seven existing watermelon rind pickle formulations (representing various soaking pretreatments including lime, brine and water) for their chemical, physical, sensory properties, safety, and suitability for industrial production. Titratable acidity (P = 0.0094), pH (P = 0.0042), color (P = 0.0153) and texture (P = 0.0373) were significantly different among various formulations; whereas, viscosity (P = 0.6603), total solids (P = 0.1175), and moisture (P = 0.2519) were not. Sensory data using a mixed gender consumer panel (n = 300, age range 18–65) indicated that overall, consumers preferred lime-soaked samples over brine or water pretreatments. Correlation existed between texture and crunchiness rating (r = 0.80). In addition, older consumers rated overall preference of watermelon rind pickles higher than younger adults (P = 0.0001). Six out of seven formulations used in this study are considered safe for industrial production with current processing times and temperatures (with pH below 4.0); however, one formulation with a final pH nearing 4.6 is considered not safe for current processing conditions.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Microbiological and yield characteristics were determined on bone-in pork loins and Boston butts (n = 65 each) that were selected from a commercial facility and subjected to one of three packaging treatments: (1) paper wrapped, (2) modified atmosphere packaging (66% O, 2.26% CO2 and 8% N2), and (3) vacuum packaging. Cuts were stored up to 21 days at 0 ± 2C for yield characteristics and an added 28 and 35 days for microbiological characteristics. Treatment and storage effects on the incidence of the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and numbers of aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and coliforms were determined. The amount of purge was variable (100 to 500 g) among packaging treatments. The vacuum packaged and modified atmosphere packed pork loins and butts had lower aerobic plate counts (P 〈 .05) compared with the paper wrapped loins and butts. The numbers of Listeria species decreased at a greater rate for the vacuum packaged and modified atmospheric packaged pork loins compared with the paper wrapped loins. No Salmonella were found on meat from any packaging treatment or storage time. The microbial quality of pork loins and butts can be improved by using vacuum packaging compared with paper wrapping or modified atmosphere packaging.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1745-4573
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Hereford bulls were late castrated by emasculation at approximately 1 year old or left intact, and fed for 0, 60 or 90 days before slaughter to evaluate various traits of the M. longissimus. More days on feed resulted in increased carcass weight, fat thickness, USDA quality grade, ribeye area and percentage kidney, pelvic and heart fat, with no difference from late castration. Percentage of soluble collagen was highest for M. longissimus steaks from the 60 day feeding group, and lowest among those fed 90 days. Steaks from the controls were lighter colored while those from steers fed 60 days were the most red. No sensory differences occurred except for off-flavor.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Restructured steaks made with 0.5 or 1.0% KCl, 0.5% MgCl2 and 0.5% CaCl2 were more desirable and darker red in raw color than blends formulated with 0.5 or 1.0% NaCl. Visual properties of raw steaks containing 0.5 or 1.0% chloride salt were scored higher than the control (no salt added) in 14 of 16 orthogonal contrast mean comparisons. Steaks made with 1.0% CaCl2 or MgCl2 were rated lower than the control in flavor desirability and overall satisfaction ratings. Control, 0.5 or 1.0% NaCl or 0.5 and 1.0% KCl steaks were not different in juiciness, tenderness, flavor desirability or overall satisfaction ratings. Steaks made with chloride salts were rancid after 70 days frozen storage. Results showed steaks made with KCl were superior to steaks formulated with CaCl2 or MgCl2.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Twelve beef/pork meat blends were made from lean of mature beef and dark or mature pork carcasses. Meat blends containing about 20% beef fat were rated higher for appearance scores by a consumer panel than blends made with 20% pork fat. Visual acceptance of beef/pork patties was accomplished via use of all-beef fat and additionally by extending mature beef (MB) with mature pork (MP) or dark pork lean (DP). Agtron calorimetry scores indicate a minimum of 20% MB lean extended with 60% MP was needed to create the appropriate red color attractive to consumers. Use of 60% MP lean with about 20% beef fat resulted in patties acceptable to consumers for visual appearance and eating satisfaction.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Eighty subprimals were fabricated from 20 pairs of beef strip loins from lean (fat thickness, 0.2-0.4 cm) US Standard and US Good carcasses. Three vacuum packaged (VP) and one dry aged treatments were randomly assigned to short loin sections of each carcass. Steaks from VP intact and VP not-reassembled subprimals were rated highest in overall appearance and eating quality. Dry aging reduced retail caselife, produced greater shrinkage and trim losses and lower overall satisfaction ratings by panelists. Precutting subprimals into steaks followed by VP aging tends to decrease retail caselife (especially if steaks are reassembled) and decrease juiciness and tenderness.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: THE EFFECT of blanching, EDTA and NaHSO3 treatments on color and vitamin B6 retention in canned garbanzo beans (Cicer arietinum) was investigated. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (ATCC 9080) and Kloeckera apiculata (UCD FS & T 72–62) were used as comparative organisms for the microbiological assay. Water blanching resulted in approximately 10–15% loss of total vitamin B6 while steam blanching resulted in only 5–8% loss. The dry garbanzo beans contained 5.5 μg vitamin B6/g when S. carlsbergensis was used as the test organism and 5.8 μg/g when K. apiculata was used. Blanching had no significant effect on the color of the canned beans. Vitamin B6 retention in the canned product was affected by the use of NaHSO3 in the soaking water as a bleaching agent. Samples soaked in water containing 1600 ppm NaHSO3 contained 3.4 ± 0.1 μg vitamin B6/g on the dry basis while the control samples contained 3.9 ± 0.2 μg/g. The NaHSO3 soaking improved the color of the canned beans significantly. Incorporating 300 ppm of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the canning brine for color improvement did not significantly affect the vitamin B6 content of the canned product. But, it did improve the color of the canned beans. Use of K. apiculata as the test organism resulted in slightly but consistently higher total vitamin B6 assays in all samples than those using S. carlsbergensis. This could be due to the difference in the response of the two organisms toward the different forms of vitamin B6. K. apiculata responds nearly equally to pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine, while S. carlsbergensis responds nearly the same to pyridoxine and pyridoxal, but to a lesser degree to pyridoxamine.
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