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  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (348)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)  (16)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SUMMARY. The key distinguishes the previously unknown larva of Plectrocnemia brevis McLachlan from larvae of the other two British Plectrocnemia species, P. conspersa (Curtis) and P. geniculata McLachlan. Notes are given on the larval habitat, life cycle and identification of the adult of P. brevis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Ingestion of large amounts of ammonium increases markedly the content of tubulin in brain. The effect on tubulin induction of ammonium ingestion for up to 100 days was investigated. Brain tubulin content showed a rapid initial increase (28%) at 2 days and reached 50% after 100 days on the diet. To discern if ammonia, the increase in urea synthesis, or both was responsible for tubulin induction, rats were maintained at several levels of uremia (by administering diets containing 0 to 80% protein) or in hyperammonemia (by urease treatment). Only ammonium administration in the diet and urease injection induced tubulin in brain. Tubulin was quantified in three different brain regions. There was a regional selectivity of tubulin induction by ammonia in rat brain. Whereas the cerebellum remained unaltered, the pa-leencephalon showed the highest increase, and the cerebral cortex exhibited only a modest increase.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract— The enzyme 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphohydrolase (CNP) has been assayed in fractions from a continuous sucrose density gradient zonal centrifugation of rabbit brain homogenates. Basic protein (BP) was also assayed by a radioimmunomethod. Fractions were examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by electron microscopy. These studies show that the major membrane fractions in the gradient differ greatly in the content of CNP and BP, and of high molecular weight proteins (HMW). The lightest membrane fractions contained numerous multilamellae, the highest content of BP and the lowest content of CNP and HMW, while the heaviest membrane fractions contained single membrane fragments and vesicles of unknown origin, the lowest content of BP and the highest content of CNP and HMW. The fraction containing the largest amount of membrane measured by turbidity, protein content, and water-washed dry weight contained only half the CNP specific activity of a denser fraction in the gradient. CNP specific activity in the lightest fractions was insignificant compared to that of denser fractions. Thus, we conclude that this enzyme may be absent from the typical multilamellar myelin structures but present in the single-membrane structures associated with myelin, such as the glial membrane and the paranodal segments of myelin adjacent to the axon. BP appears to occupy the opposite positions, highest in the multilamellae and lowest in the single-membrane structures of myelin. These studies do not exclude the possibility that CNP may not be bound to myelin membranes, but rather to a membrane of different origin. Evidence that this enzyme is a myelin-marker enzyme is circumstantial. Our evidence indicates the enzyme could be present either in a unique portion of myelin membranes or in another membrane structure.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 26 (1976), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: —Tyramine β-hydroxylase catalyzes the biosynthesis of octopamine in the lobster nervous system. This enzyme has been characterized and a rapid microassay, based on the enzymic release of tritiated water from [1,2-(side chain) 3H] tyramine, has been developed. Lobster tyramine β-hydroxylase resembled mammalian dopamine β-hydroxylase. The most conspicuous differences were that the lobster enzyme was inhibited by anions, particularly fumarate, and had a higher affinity for substrates. Tyramine β-hydroxylase activity was present in both particulate and soluble fractions of homogenates of the lobster nervous system. Bound activity, extracted by repeated freezing and thawing, was partially purified. The enzyme had the following properties: (1) The optimum pH for the conversion of tyramine to octopamine was 7·4. (2) The apparent Michaelis constant for tyramine was 0·15 mm and for ascorbic acid was 0·2 mm at pH 6·6. (3) The purified enzyme was inhibited by salts; the degree of inhibition was sensitive to the anion and decreased in the order chloride ⋍ fumarate 〉 sulphate 〉 acetate. (4) Tyramine β-hydroxylase was inhibited by metal chelating agents and by cupric sulphate at concentrations greater than 10−4m; N-ethylmaleimide had no significant effect on activity in concentrations up to 3 mm. (5) The purified enzyme also β-hydroxylated dopamine to form norepinephrine, with an apparent Michaelis constant of 0·24 mm. This activity co-purified with tyramine β-hydroxylase, suggesting that a single enzyme catalyzed both reactions.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The phosphatidylinositol turnover pathway has been studied in noradrenaline-perfused rat hearts using anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography.2. The active calcium-releasing compound inositol-(1,4,5)trisphosphate was detected together with its degradation products inositol-(1,4)bisphosphate and inositol monophosphate. All these products increased in response to noradrenaline stimulation.3. At noradrenaline perfusion times from 5 s to 20 min there was no appearance of inositol-(1,3,4,5)tetrakisphosphate or its degradation products: inositol-(1,3,4)trisphosphate or inositol-(1,3) and (3,4)bisphosphates.4. These data suggest the absence of the inositol-(1,4,5)trisphosphate phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathway in heart.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Local rates of cerebral protein synthesis (ICPSleu), were determined with the autoradiographic L-[1-14C]leucine method in seven awake and seven asleep, adult rhesus monkeys conditioned to sleep in a restraining chair in a darkened, ventilated chamber while EEG, EOG, and EMG were monitored. Prior to the period of measurement all animals slept for 1–4 h. Controls were awakened after at least one period of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. Experimental animals were allowed to remain asleep, and they exhibited non-REM sleep for 71–99% of the experimental period. Statistically significant differences in ICPSleu between control and experimental animals were found in four of the 57 regions of brain examined, but these effects may have occurred by chance. In the sleeping animals, however, correlations between ICPSleu, and percent time in deep sleep were positive in all regions and were statistically significant (P≤ 0.05) in 35 of the regions. When time in deep sleep was weighted for the integrated specific activity of leucine in grey matter, positive correlations were statistically significant (P≤ 0.05) in 18 regions in the experimental animals. These results suggest that rates of protein synthesis are increased in many regions of the brain during deep sleep compared with light sleep.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Addiction 88 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1360-0443
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: We have reviewed 156 papers which provided sufficient information to relate individual alcohol consumption to risk for a variety of physical damage. Overall, there was evidence for a dose-response relationship between level of alcohol consumption and risk of harm for liver cirrhosis, cancers of the oropharynx, larynx, oesophagus, rectum (beer only), liver and breast, and blood pressure and stroke. An increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy and sudden coronary death was associated with heavy drinking. There was evidence for a protective effect of alcohol consumption against risk of coronary heart disease, which could be achieved at consumption levels of less than 10 g alcohol a day. The mortality of non-drinkers was higher than that of moderate drinkers in some studies. Level of alcohol consumption and total mortality were dose-related when non-drinkers were excluded. The finding of a dose-relationship between alcohol and harm suggested causality. It was not possible to define individual risk for all harms at a given level of alcohol consumption because of variations in methodology, but some idea of the order of magnitude of the increased risk can be obtained from calculating trends of pooled log-odds ratios. At levels of alcohol consumption of more than 20–30 g a day, all individuals are likely to accumulate risk of harm. Current guidelines on upper limits of lower risk drinking in different countries (168–280 g of alcohol a week for men and 84–140 g a week for women) reflect levels at which the risk of total mortality is not greatly increased above one.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Anaesthesia 51 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We report the case of a 30-year-old pregnant woman with an Arnold-Chiari malformation, who presented with severe pregnancy-induced hypertension at 30 weeks gestation. She was known to have had a difficult tracheal intubation during a previous general anaesthetic. Caesarean section was performed under an incremental epidural anaesthetic block.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Anaesthesia 50 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A pain management programme was set up in a large District General Hospital to improve the management of the many patients with chronic non-malignant pain who do not respond to interventional medicine. Outcome measures studied were depression, anxiety, disability, pain locus of control, illness behaviour and patient satisfaction with the programme. The first five of these measures showed statistically significant improvements whilst patient satisfaction with the programme was high at both assessments. In addition, there were marked decreases in the consumption of analgesics and sedative drugs. We conclude that a multidisciplinary pain management programme is a cost effective and constructive way of treating patients whose pain does not respond to interventional management.
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