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  • 1
    ISSN: 1439-0426
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Literature data are analysed regarding losses of body substances occurring during a period of food deprivation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Nitrogen (protein) and energy losses show a distinct dependence on fish mass (FM [g]) and water temperature (T [°C]). Several regression models for this relationship were compared with best testing estimates as follows:Nitrogen loss [mg N 2 fish−1 2 d−1] = 0.0658 e(1.037) 2 FM0.739(n= 49, 9–20°C, 5–400g fish mass, P 〈 0.001, B = 0.826)Nitrogen-corrected energy loss [J 2 fish−1 2 d−1] = 22.09 e(1.034) 2 FM0.833(n= 63, 9–25°C, 8–400 g fish mass, P 〈 0.001, B = 0.887).For nitrogen loss as well as for nitrogen-corrected energy loss, the metabolic rate shows a progressive increase with rising water temperature. The temperature coefficient increases in magnitude as temperature increases. The introduction of a general common exponent (0.8 instead of 0.739 for nitrogen loss and 0.833 for energy loss) for fish mass decreases the precision of the estimate. The equations could serve as a base for estimating net protein and net energy maintenance requirements of rainbow trout. Possible limitations, caused by uncertainities in estimating the elevated metabolic rate by food intake and ingestion, are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the mucosal alterations of the dorsal rat tongue produced by Candida albicans infection were reversible upon treatment with the antifungal drug ketoconazole. Following experimentally-produced infection, 17 rats showed clinical evidence of persistent lesions over a period of 20 weeks. Eight of these animals were then treated with ketoconazole daily for 2 weeks (20 mg/kg/day). Appropriate non-infected controls and ketoconazole-only controls were also maintained. Five weeks after the ketoconazole treatment, all animals were killed and the dorsal tongues evaluated clinically and histologically. Control groups showed no abnormalities. Of the 8 animals in the treated-lesion group, all showed lesional resolution, while only 2 of the 9 animals in the untreated-lesion group showed resolution of their lesions (p=0.002). These findings indicate that the epithelial changes produced by this candidal isolate for this period of time are reversible.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In order to examine the behavior of Candida albicans in an oral mucosal model, 16 isolates of the organism were collected from a variety of clinical settings and were inoculated weekly, in equal numbers and concentrations, into the mouths of separate groups of 20 female Sprague-Dawley rats. Oral swabs were taken bi-weekly in order to monitor the presence of the yeast. After 16 weeks, the animals were killed and the tongues were examined grossly and histologically. Six isolates demonstrated the ability to produce characteristic dorsal tongue lesions to varying degrees (1/20; 1/20; 1/20; 2/20; 3/20; and 12/20). Of the remaining 10 isolates, 5 showed hyphal penetration of the keratin layer of the dorsal tongue epithelium, yet no mucosal reaction was elicited and no lesion was produced (1/19; 2/19; 4/20; 5/20 and 5/20). These findings support the concept that C. albicans exhibits a spectrum of mucosal pathogenicity for dorsal rat tongue.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Treatment of molar teeth with severe furcation involvement allows for differing therapies of which the tunneling procedure has been least studied. While subsequent root caries in furcal exposed teeth was believed a major shortcoming, successful periodontal therapy is primarily dependent upon the stability of the attachment and intrafurcal and interproximal bone. We evaluated in each of 18 subjects (10 female, 8 male) a molar tooth with deep grade II/III furcation involvement at time of presentation (T-0), to 1st post-surgical recall following a tunneling procedure (T-1), to most immediate last recall (T-2; mean time T-0 to T-2, 5.80±0.83 years). Assessments included O'Leary's plaque index (P1-I), attachment levels (AL), root caries and radiographic bone loss. The mean P1-I from T-0 to T-2 decreased 56.8% with some plaque at T-2 detected in furcations of 7/18 teeth. AL across all time periods were not significantly difference except for palatal/lingual AL which from T-0 to T-2 were significantly different. Root caries was found in only 3 teeth at T-2. Adequate radiographs were available for 8 surgically tunneled mandibular molars for analysis of 5 measurements of osseous levels i.e. the mesial and distal levels of the intrafurcal and the interproximal osseous crests, and the distal interproximal osseous crest of a mesial adjacent single-rooted reference tooth which received osseous surgery at the same time. Mean time change values (T-1 to last radiograph taken. T-2a; mean time 3.0±0.7 years) showed no significant difference among the 5 points measured. These results indicate no difference in AL nor loss of furcal or proximal crestal bone in surgically tunneled mandibular molars when compared with an adjacent tooth receiving osseous surgery.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    BJOG 96 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. Sera from 13 pregnant women carrying a fetus with a neural tube defect, and from 13 control women with normal pregnancies at the same stage of gestation were used in the culture of postimplantation rat embryos. Serum from women with normal pregnancies had no adverse effect on rat embryo growth and development. Serum from 10 of the women with affected fetuses had a deleterious effect on the rat embryos as abnormalities of neural tube closure were observed in 28% of the conceptuses compared to only 1·3% of the embryos cultured in control scrum.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1532-849X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study was to assess distortion inherent in casting, soldering, and simulated porcelain firings of screw-retained, implant-supported three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs).〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉Materials and MethodsTen wax patterns were fabricated on a die-stone cast containing two implants, 20 mm apart from center to center. Five specimens were cast in a high-palladium alloy, exposed to simulated porcelain firings, sectioned, and then soldered with low-fusing solder. Five specimens were cast, sectioned, soldered with high-fusing solder, and then exposed to simulated porcelain firings. For each specimen, two horizontal and six vertical distances between appropriately scribed reference points were measured with a traveling microscope. Comparisons were made among the various measurements taken after wax-pattern fabrication, casting, high- and low-fusing soldering, and each porcelain firing. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures factorial ANOVA (α= 0.05).〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉ResultsSignificant difference was detected in the amount of horizontal distortion during casting (53 ± 24 μm) and high-fusing soldering (−49 ± 50 μm), as well as in the amount of horizontal distortion during high-fusing soldering (−49 ± 50 μm) and low-fusing soldering (17 ± 26 μm). However, no clinically significant difference was found in the amount of horizontal distortion during casting, low-fusing, and high-fusing soldering. The greatest amount of distortion during the simulated porcelain firings took place during the oxidizing cycle.〈section xml:id="abs1-4"〉〈title type="main"〉ConclusionsSoldering did not improve the casting misfit of a three-unit implant-retained FPD model. Metal-ceramic implant frameworks should be oxidized before intraoral fit evaluation.
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