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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A bronchial P cell carcinoid, which was negative for all hormones immunocytochemically tested, showed a globular intracytoplasmic inclusion in almost every cell. The inclusions were not clearly distinguishable using the haematoxylin-eosinsafran procedure; they were best demonstrated with the Masson trichrome stain and the Grimelius technique and were easily detected in 1 μm thick Epon sections as target-like structures. On electron microscopy, they were found to be composed of filamentous aggregates entrapping a few endosecretory granules, which showed degenerative changes. The filaments, 8–10 nm in diameter, lacked any periodicity; they were randomly dispersed in the central area and arranged in broken concentric swirls at the periphery of the inclusions. The globules lacked the tinctorial properties of amyloid, but showed a strong immunostaining for keratin-like proteins. A systematic investigation of 12 APUDomas of bronchial or duodenopancreatic origin, using both light and electron microscopy, identified a few filamentous bodies in one case, a somatostatin cell tumour of ampulla of Vater. In both cases, the structures appeared similar to those previously reported in growth hormone cell pituitary adenomas as well as in a few bronchial or gut carcinoids. Whatever their nature, morphological data suggest that they are related to abnormalities in the secretory function, involving the Golgi apparatus, the endosecretory granules and the microtubular microfilamentous system.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The specific binding of [3H]GBR-12935 to membranes prepared from human caudate nucleus is saturable (Bmax 1.36 ± 0.18 pmol/mg protein), sodium dependent, and of high affinity (KD 2.34 ± 0.18 nM). Freezing of tissue from rat brain, or refrigeration followed by freezing, results in a small but significant (〈inlineGraphic alt="leqslant R: less-than-or-eq, slant" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00223042:JNC617:les" location="les.gif"/〉20%) decrease in specific [3H]GBR-12935 binding when compared to the binding observed in fresh (nonfrozen) tissue, and this decrease may account, in part, for the differences in specific binding between rat and human brain membranes. Despite small differences in binding site density between fresh and frozen tissue there is a good correlation (r= 0.98; p 〈 0.01) between the potencies of a series of drugs in displacing specific [3H]GBR-12935 binding to human caudate membranes and rat striatum as well as in inhibiting dopamine uptake in rat striatal synaptosomes (r= 0.96; p 〈 0.01). The specific binding of [3H]GBR-12935 to membranes prepared from the caudate nuclei of patients with Parkinson's disease is decreased compared to membranes prepared from age-and sex-matched controls. These data suggest that [3H]GBR-12935 binds in a sodium-dependent fashion to the dopamine transport complex in human brain and that specific binding is decreased by a pathological degeneration of dopaminergic neurons to the caudate nucleus.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: [3H]Kainic acid binding sites with a slow dissociation rate in the rat limbic system were investigated in detail. Extensively washed membranes prepared from the hippocampal formation and from the region comprising the amygdala and the piriform cortex yielded nonlinear Scatchard plots. Microdissection showed that the high-affinity component (affinity constant around 1 nM) was present in the hippocampal CA3 region (4.2 fmol/mg wet tissue) and the amygdaloid complex (4.6 fmol/mg wet tissue), whereas the remaining part of the hippocampal formation and the piriform lobe contained the low-affinity component (affinity constant 5–20 nM; 11.6 and 11.3 fmol/mg wet tissue, respectively). In the lateral + medial septum we detected only the low-affinity component. Severe limbic seizures, induced by unilateral injection of 0.7 or 0.8 μg kainic acid in 0.3 μl of phosphate-buffered saline into the amygdala, reduced kainic acid binding sites in the ipsilateral amygdala and CA3 region. The decline of kainic acid binding sites in the injected amygdala was followed by a similar effect in the contralateral amygdala (“mirror focus”) and later by a moderate loss also in the contralateral CA3 region. Kainic acid receptor autoradi-ography demonstrated that binding sites were lost from the stratum lucidum in hippocampus. Septal lesion had no effect on kainic acid binding sites in the hippocampus. Comparison with previous results on the histopathological changes after this lesion shows that high-affinity kainic acid binding sites are preferentially located on neurons that undergo selective degenerations after severe kainic acid-induced seizures.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Biopsies from 15 human gliomas, five meningiomas, four Schwannomas, one medulloblastoma, and four normal brain areas were analyzed for 12 enzymes of energy metabolism and 12 related metabolites and cofactors. Samples, 0.01–0.25 μg dry weight, were dissected from freeze-dried microtome sections to permit all the assays on a given specimen to be made, as far as possible, on nonnecrotic pure tumor tissue from the same region. Great diversity was found with regard to both enzyme activities and metabolite levels among individual tumors, but the following generalities can be made. Activities of hexokinase, phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and malate dehydrogenase levels were usually lower than in brain; glycogen synthase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were usually higher; and the averages for pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and β-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase were not greatly different from brain. Levels of eight of the 12 enzymes were distinctly lower among the Schwannomas than in the other two groups. Average levels of glucose-6-phosphate, lactate, pyruvate, and uridine diphosphoglucose were more than twice those of brain; 6-phosphogluconate and citrate were about 70% higher than in brain; glucose, glycogen, glycerol-1-phosphate, and malate averages ranged from 104% to 127% of brain; and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and glucose-1,6-bis-phosphate levels were on the average 50% and 70% those of brain, respectively.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 4 (1959), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 2 (1957), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We studied Na+ and Ca2+ currents in glial cells during the development of the corpus callosum in situ. Glioblasts and oligodendrocytes from frontal brain slices of postnatal day (P) 3 to P18 mice were identified based on morphological and ultrastructural features after characterization of the currents with the patch-clamp technique. Slices from P3-P8 mice contained predominantly glioblasts with immature morphological features. These cells showed Na+ and Ca2+ currents, but the population with these currents decreased between P3 and P8. Na+ currents were blocked in Na+-free bathing solution and in the presence of tetrodotoxin, Ca2+ currents were only observed when a high concentration of extracellular Ba2+ was present. The cells from the corpus callosum of P10 – P18 mice predominantly had morphological features of oligodendrocytes. In these cells, which in some cases were shown to form myelin, neither Na+ nor Ca2+ currents were detected. To compare these in situ results with those from the electrophysiologically and immunocytochemically well-characterized cultured glial cells, we determined the expression pattern of stage-specific antigens in the corpus callosum in situ. The first O4 antigen-positive glial precursors were observed at P1, the earliest stage examined. The oligodendrocytic antigens O7 and O10 appeared at P6 and P14, respectively, and prominent labelling with the corresponding markers was seen at P12 and P18, respectively. Despite the existence of numerous mature, O10-positive oligodendrocytes at P18, which expressed Ca2+ channels in vitro, we failed to detect Ca2+ currents in situ at this stage.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1369-1600
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In our society every second polytraumatized patient is a chronic alcoholic. A patient's alcohol-related history is often unavailable and laboratory markers are not sensitive or specific enough to detect alcohol-dependent patients who are at risk of developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) during their post-traumatic intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Previously, it has been found that plasma levels of norharman are elevated in chronic alcoholics. We investigated whether β-carbolines, i.e. harman and norharman levels, could identify chronic alcoholics following trauma and whether possible changes during ICU stay could serve as a predictor of deterioration of clinical status. Sixty polytraumatized patients were transferred to the ICU following admission to the emergency room and subsequent surgery. Chronic alcoholics were included only if they met the DSM-III-R and ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence or chronic alcohol abuse/harmful use and their daily ethanol intake was ≥ 60 g. Harman and norharman levels were assayed on admission and on days 2, 4, 7 and 14 in the ICU. Harman and norharman levels were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography. Elevated norharman levels were found in chronic alcoholics (n = 35) on admission to the hospital and remained significantly elevated during their ICU stay. The area under the curves (AUC) showed that norharman was comparable to carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) and superior to conventional laboratory markers in detecting chronic alcoholics. Seventeen chronic alcoholics developed AWS; 16 of these patients experienced hallucinations or delirium. Norharman levels were significantly increased on days 2 and 4 in the ICU in patients who developed AWS compared with those who did not. An increase in norharman levels preceded hallucinations or delirium with a median period of approximately 3 days. The findings that elevated norharman levels are found in chronic alcoholics, that the AUC was in the range of CDT on admission and that norharman levels remained elevated during the ICU stay, support the view that norharman is a specific marker for alcoholism in traumatized patients. Since norharman levels increased prior to the onset of hallucinations and delirium it seems reasonable to investigate further the potential role of norharman as a possible substance which triggers AWS.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: An analysis of integrated electromyographic (IEMG) activity of masseter and anterior temporal muscles was undertaken in fifteen patients with complete dentures and eight adult subjects with natural dentition.Bipolar surface electrodes were used for IEMG recordings during maximal voluntary clenching and saliva swallowing in the inter-cuspal position.The IEMG activity of both muscles during maximal voluntary clenching was significantly lower in patients with complete dentures than in subjects with natural dentition. During saliva swallowing the activity in both muscles was similar in both groups. This may have a great clinical significance in the maintenance of the functional state of the different structures of the stomatognathic system in complete denture wearers, since the process of swallowing is a 24-h function repeated about 600–2400 times each day.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1369-1600
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether the naturally occurring beta-carbolines norharman and harman differed between alcohol-dependent patients who developed alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and those who did not. The secondary aim was to determine whether different treatment regimens influenced the levels of the beta-carbolines. Thirty chronic alcoholics with carcinoma of the upper digestive tract were included in this study. They were prophylactically treated by two different medical regimens: flunitrazepam and clonidine (FNZ regimen) and gamma-hydroxybutyrate and clonidine (GHB regimen). Patients exceeding the Revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol Scale (CIWA-Ar) score of 20 were assigned to the AWS therapy group and received haloperidol in addition to their prevous prophylactic treatment. Patients without AWS remained in the prophylactic group. From days 1–4 of the intensive care unit (ICU) stay norharman, but not harman, was increased in the AWS therapy group. In the FNZ regimen, six of 16 patients (38%) and in the GHB regimen, nine of 14 patients (64%) developed AWS (p= 0.14). Norharman levels did not differ between the two regimens. However, harman levels were increased in the GHB treated regimen on days 1, 2 and 4 following admission to the ICU and correlated with the severity of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. As norharman was elevated in the therapeutically treated ICU patients, this marker appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of AWS. As harman was elevated before and during hallucinations on the GHB regimen, it seems reasonable to carry out further investigations into the potential role of harman as a hallucinatory substance.
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